??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? Windows Server 2003, Windows XP ?? Windows 2000 ?? ???

???? ?????? ???? ??????
???? ID: 103390 - ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??.
??? ?? ??????? ???? | ??? ?? ??????? ????

?? ????? ??

????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ???? Windows ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? NTLM ????????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? (SMB) ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??, ????? NTLM ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? workings ????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???, ?? deterministic ?????? ?? ??? Windows ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????
?? Kerberos ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??, ????????? ???? NTLM ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???, ????? Microsoft TechNet ??? ???? ?? ????:
http://technet2.microsoft.com/WindowsServer/en/Library/f5c70774-25cd-4481-8b7a-3d65c86e69b11033.mspx
??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??, ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ???

????????? ???????

?? Windows Server 2003-??????, Windows XP-?????? ?? Windows 2000-?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ???, ?? ????? ????? ????? (SMB) ??? ???? ?? ?? ????-?????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? SMB ???? ???? NetBIOS ????????? ?????????? ???????? (NetBEUI) ?? tcp/ip ??????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ??, ?????? ?? ???, ?? "SMB ???? ????? ?? X" ?????? ???? ???? ???

Windows, ??? "???? ?????" SMB ????? ??, ?? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????

??????????

?? ????? ?? Windows ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ??:
   NET USE x: \\server\share
		
???? ????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?? "???? ?????" SMB Windows ??????? ???????? ????? ???

????? ?? SMB ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??, ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??:
    It checks its own domain database or computer database for
        a matching account.
    If it finds a matching account then
        The SMB password is compared to the domain database password or the computer database password.
        If  the password matches then
            The command completed successfully.
        If  the password does NOT match then
            The user is prompted for a password.
                The password is retested as above.
            System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure: unknown
            user name or bad password.
        End
    If  it does NOT find the account in the domain Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database or computer SAM database then
        Guest permissions are tested.
        If  the guest account is enabled
            The command completed successfully.
        If  the guest account is disabled
            (* See Note a).
            The user is prompted for a password.
            System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
                unknown user name or bad password.
        End
		
?? ?????? ????? SMB ??? ????????? ????? ??, ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??:
    The server will do pass-through authentication. The
        network logon request will be sent to a server that has a domain controller role in the
        specified trusted domain.
		
???? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??, ?? ????? ????????? ???? ??:
The trusted domain controller checks its own domain database
        for a matching account.
    If the trusted domain controller finds a matching account, then
       NOT for Windows 2000 and later versions:
    It determines whether the account is a local or global account.
       If the account is local, then
           Guest permissions on the original server are tested.
           If the guest account is enabled
               The command completed successfully.
           If the guest account is disabled
               (* See Note a) The user is prompted for a password.
               System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
               unknown user name or bad password.
        End
        If the account is global (the only option for Active Directory)
           The SMB password is compared to the domain database
               password.
           If  the password matches, then
               The command completed successfully.
               (* See Note b)
           If  the password does NOT match, then
               The user is prompted for a password.
                   The password is retested as above.
               System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
               unknown user name or bad password.
       End
    If the trusted domain controller does NOT find the account in the trusted domain controller
           database, then
       Guest permissions are tested on the original server, not the trusted domain.  (* See Note c)
       If  the guest account is enabled
           The user will have original server guest access.
           The command completed successfully.
       If  the guest account is disabled
           (* See Note a) The user is prompted for a password.
           System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
           unknown user name or bad password.
    End

??????????

???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? NTLMv2 ??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??, ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? v2 ?? NTLM ?? ????? ???? ??, ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???

?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??, ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? "??????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????" ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??, ?? ?????, ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ???, ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? "?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???" (STATUS_LOGON_FAILURE) ?????? ???? ?? ?????? "??? ???????" ?????? STATUS_WRONG_PASSWORD ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????

?? ????? ?????:
??? ???: ???????
?????: Microsoft-Windows-???????-????????
????? ID: 4625
????? ??????: ?????
????: ?????
??????: ???????? ??????
????????: ?????-computer1
?????:
???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????

????:

??????? ID: ?? SID
???? ???:-
????? ????:-
ID ?????: 0x0

?????? ?????: 3

???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???:

??????? ID: ?? SID
???? ???: ntadmin
????? ????: ???????-computer1

?????? ???????:

???? ??????: ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ????????
??????: 0xc000006d
?? ??????: 0xc000006a
...

??????? ??????? ???????:

????????? ?????: NtLmSsp
??????? ?????: NTLM
Transited ??????:-
????? ?? ??? (???? NTLM):-
????? ?????: 0

?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???, ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??????-?????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??, ?????? ????? ????:
??? ????? x: \\server-computer1\data /u:server-computer1\ntadmin *
??? SMB ??? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ??, ????? ???? ??, ?? ?????? ?? ???, ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ??:
    It  will check its own account database for
        a matching account
    If  the server finds a matching account, then
        The SMB password is compared to the domain database password or the computer database password.
        If  the password matches, then
            The command completed successfully.
        If  the password does NOT match, then
            The user is prompted for a password.
                The password is retested as above.
            System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure: unknown
            user name or bad password.
    End
    If  it does NOT find the account in the domain database then
        guest permissions are tested.
        If  the guest account is enabled
            The command completed successfully.
        If  the guest account is disabled
            System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
            unknown user name or bad password.
    End
		
??, SMB ??? ????????? ????? ??, ?? ??, ??? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ??, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??:
    The server will treat this as a local network logon. The server
        will test for a matching account in its own database.
    If  it finds a matching account, then
        The SMB password is compared to the SAM database password.
        If  the password matches, then
            The command completed successfully.
        If  the password does NOT match, then
            The user is prompted for a password.
                The password is retested as above.
            System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure: unknown
            user name or bad password.
    End
    If  it does NOT find the account in the local SAM database AND
      LsaLookupRestrictIsolatedNameLevel=0, then (* See Note d)
        The server will simultaneously ask each domain that it trusts whether it has account that
            matches the SMB account.
        The first trusted domain to reply is sent a request to
            perform pass-through authentication of the client
            information.
        The trusted domain will look in its own database.
        If  an account that matches the SMB account is found, then
            The trusted domain determines whether the account is a local or global
                account.
           Not for Windows 2000 and later versions:
            If  the account is local then
                Guest permissions on the original server are tested.
                If  the guest account is enabled
                    The command completed successfully.
                If  the guest account is disabled
                The user will be prompted for a password.
                Regardless of what password is entered, the user will receive
                    "Error 5: Access has been denied."
            End
            If  the account is global (the only option for Active Directory)
                The password that was specified in the SMB is compared
                    to the SAM database password.
                If  the password matches, then
                    The command completed successfully.
                If  the password does NOT match, then
                    The user is prompted for a password.
                        The password is retested as above.
                    System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
                    unknown user name or bad password.
            End
    If  no trusted domains respond to the request to identify the
        account, then
        Guest permissions are tested on the original server,
            not the trusted server.
        If  the guest account is enabled
            The command completed successfully.
        If  the guest account is disabled
            System error 1326 has occurred. Logon failure:
            unknown user name or bad password.
    End
		

?????

  1. ????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??, ?? ???? havean ???? ?????????? ???? ??, ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? willmeet ?????? ???? ??????????, ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? securitymeasure ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????? ?? ??? tellthe ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? doesnot ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?? insures. ?????????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ofwhether ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????
  2. ?? ????? ??, ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??: ????? SID, ?????????? ID, ??????? GroupsMemberships, ????? ???, ??? ?? ???, KickOffTime, ???? ???, ??????? LastSet, ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???, ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ????, ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??, ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????
  3. ????????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??, ?? theoperating ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ???? behaviorfor ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??????
  4. LsaLookupRestrictIsolatedNameLevel ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? Microsoft ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????:
    818024 LsaLookupRestrictIsolatedNameLevel ????????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ????
  • ????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? beavailable ??? ???? ?????
  • ????????, ?????? ????????? ???? ???? ?? thealgorithms ?? ???? ???? ???
  • ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ofpass-???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? Microsoft ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????:
    102716 Windows ??? ?????????? ??????? NTLM
  • ?? ?????????? ?? Windows Server 2003, Windows XP ?? Windows 2000 ??? ????? ???? ???? ??, ??????? encryptionprocess ?? ????? ???? ??? Aone ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? (?????) ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? Thecontent thelogon ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???? ???
  • ?????? workings theMicrosoft ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???
  • ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ????, whenenabled, ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP ?? Windows 2000 ??? apassword ????? ???? ???? ??? Guestaccount ??????? ????????? ???? ??, ?? ?????????? ??????? SMB mustmatch ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ????????

??????

?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????

?????? 1

???? ???????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???????-????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???????-????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? \\SCRATCH ???? ????? ???, ??????? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???????-????? ????? trusts ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? \\NET ???? ????? ???, ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ??:
1326 ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????: ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ????????
\SCRATCH-DOMAIN\USER1 ???? ????????? ?? \\NET ???

??? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???

????????????

?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????:
  -Login account: USER1
  -Password:      PSW1
  -Login Domain:  LOCAL1
		
?????? ?????????? ????? ????????:
  -Server Name: NET</WWITEM>
  -Domain:      NET-DOMAIN</WWITEM>
  -Trust:       NET-DOMAIN Trust SCRATCH-DOMAIN (Therefore,
                accounts on SCRATCH-DOMAIN can be granted permissions 
                in the NET- DOMAIN).
		
???-????? ?????:
  • ????? ???? ??????? NET ????? ????? doesnot ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??????????1 ?? ????
  • ????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ???
Windows Server 2003:
  -Server Name:                       SCRATCH
  -Domain:                            SCRATCH-DOMAIN
  -Domain Database contains account:  USER1
  -Domain Database contains password: PSW1
		
?? ?????? ???, ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ???, ???? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???????-????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???

?????? 2

?? ?? ??? ????? x: \\NET\share ???? ????? ???, ????? ????? ?? ???? ??:
  1. "???? ?????" SMB ??? ????? Thecomputer ????? ??:
    ???? "??????????1" =
    ??????? = "PSW1"
    ????? = "LOCAL1"
  2. \\NET ????? SMB ??????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? = ?? ???
  3. ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? anddoes ???? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???
  4. ???? ??? ????? SMB ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???
  5. Notcheck ????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ??, ????? ????? "LOCAL1," ?? ??????? ???? ???
  6. ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???
  7. ????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? "?????? ?????? 1326 hasoccurred. ????? ??????: ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ???????. "?????? ????? isgenerated.

?????? 3

?? ?? ??? ????? x: \\SCRATCH\share???? ????? ???, ????? ????? ?? ???? ??:
  1. "???? ?????" SMB ??? ????? Thecomputer ????? ??:
    ???? "??????????1" =
    ??????? = "PSW1"
    ????? = "LOCAL1"
  2. \\SCRATCH ????? SMB ??????? ???? ?? ?? theaccount ??? ?? ??????? ???? ???
  3. ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? andfinds ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???
  4. ??????? ?? domainaccount ??????? SMB ????? ??? ????? ???? ???
  5. ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????, "???? CompletesSuccessfully" ????? ????? ???? ??? ???
?????? 2 ?? 3 ?????? ???, ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????-????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??, ??? x: \\NET\share ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????

??? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???, ?????????? ?? ?????, ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????-?????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????, ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? Windows Server 2003-??????, Windows XP-??????, ?? Windows 2000-?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????

???????? ??

?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??, ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???:
NET USE X: \\NET\SHARE /USER:SCRATCH-DOMAIN\USER1 PSW1
?? ??????? ???, ???? ?? ???? ??:
  - \\NET = The computer name of the domain controller being accessed.
  - \SHARE = The share name.
  - /USER: command line parameter that lets you specify the domain,
    account and password that should be specified in the "Session Setup"
    SMB.
  - SCRATCH-DOMAIN = Domain name of the domain where the user
    account resides.
  - \USER1 = account to be validated against.
  - PSW1 = password that matches account on the domain.
		
?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???, ????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????:
??? ?? ????? ???? /?

?? ????? ???

"???? ????? ??? SMB [x 73]" ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?? Windows Server 2003, Windows XP ?? Windows 2000 ??? ????? ?? Microsoft SMB ??????? SMB. ????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ??, ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? Microsoft SMB ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? 1 ??? ?????? ??????? Microsoft SMB ??????? ?? ??????? ?????

?????

  • LANMAN ??? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ???INI fileon "????? =" ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? /DOMAIN:??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????
  • ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???????????? "?????" ?? ??? ??? theSMB: ?? ?????-????? ????? ??? ?? thequestion ?? ???? ??? ?? ??-???? ????? ??? ??????? ???? (?)? SMB ????? ??????????? catches ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? (LSA) ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???? itto ?? ?? ?????? ???? ???

?????? ??????

????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???

Windows 2000 ?? ??? ?? ????????? ?? Windows 2000-?????? ????? ??????????

  1. ????? ???????? ??, startActive ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???
  2. ????? ???????? OU????-????? ????, andthen ???????? ?????
  3. ???? ???? ??? ??,???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????
  4. ComputerSettings????? ????, ????? ???? Windows ??????,??????? ????????????? ????, ????? ???? ??????? ????, ???? ?????? ???, andthen ???? ???????? ????? ?????
  5. ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????

Windows 2000 ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????????

  1. ????? ???????? ??, startActive ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???
  2. ????? ??? ????-????? ????, ?? ???? ??????????? ?????
  3. ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??? ??, ???-????? ?????
  4. ComputerSettings???? ?????? ???, ????? ????, Windows ??????,??????? ????????????? ????, ????? ???? ??????? ????, andthen ???? ???????? ????? ?????
  5. ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????

Windows 2000 ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????

  1. ???????????? ????? ??, ??????? SecurityPolicy ??????? ?????
  2. ???? ???? ?? ??????
  3. ?????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????
??, ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??, ?? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???, ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ?????

??????? ?????, ???-???? ???????, ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???, ????? "?????? ?????? ?? ??? Windows Server 2003 ??????? ??????." ??? ???? ?? ???, ????? Microsoft ??? ???? ?? ????:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/techinfo/overview/security.mspx

???? ???????

????:, ???? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2012 R2 ???? ?? ????

?? OS ?? ?? ?? ???????? ??? SMB.

Windows Server 2008

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff625695 (v=ws.10).aspx

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc770740 (v=ws.10).aspx


Windows Server 2012

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831795.aspx

???

???? ID: 103390 - ????? ???????: 15 ????? 2014 - ??????: 2.0
???? ???? ???? ??:
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition (32-bit x86)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition (32-bit x86)
  • Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Web Edition
  • Microsoft Windows XP Professional
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Edition
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
??????: 
kbnetwork kbmt KB103390 KbMthi
???? ?????? ????????
??????????: ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?? Microsoft ????-?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??. Microsoft ???? ??? ????-???????? ?? ????-???????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??. ???????, ????-???????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???. ?????, ????????, ?????-???? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???, ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??. Microsoft ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ??. Microsoft ????-?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ??.
?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??:103390

??????????? ???

 

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