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It is a good idea to establish naming conventions for your Visual Basic code. This article gives you the naming conventions used by Microsoft Consulting Services (MCS).
This document is a superset of the Visual Basic coding conventions found in the Visual Basic "Programmer's Guide."
NOTE: The third-party controls mentioned in this article are manufactured by vendors independent of Microsoft. Microsoft makes no warranty, implied or otherwise, regarding these controls' performance or reliability.
Naming conventions help Visual Basic programmers:
Setting Environment OptionsUse Option Explicit. Declare all variables to save programming time by reducing the number of bugs caused by typos (for example, aUserNameTmp vs. sUserNameTmp vs. sUserNameTemp). In the Environment Options dialog, set Require Variable Declaration to Yes. The Option Explicit statement requires you to declare all the variables in your Visual Basic program. Save Files as ASCII Text. Save form (.FRM) and module (.BAS) files as ASCII text to facilitate the use of version control systems and minimize the damage that can be caused by disk corruption. In addition, you can:
Object Naming Conventions for Standard ObjectsThe following tables define the MCS standard object name prefixes. These prefixes are consistent with those documented in the Visual Basic Programmers Guide.
Prefix Object Type Example ------------------------------------------------------- ani Animation button aniMailBox bed Pen Bedit bedFirstName cbo Combo box and drop down list box cboEnglish chk Checkbox chkReadOnly clp Picture clip clpToolbar cmd (3d) Command button (3D) cmdOk (cmd3dOk) com Communications comFax ctr Control (when specific type unknown) ctrCurrent dat Data control datBiblio dir Directory list box dirSource dlg Common dialog control dlgFileOpen drv Drive list box drvTarget fil File list box filSource frm Form frmEntry fra (3d) Frame (3d) fraStyle (fra3dStyle) gau Gauge gauStatus gpb Group push button gpbChannel gra Graph graRevenue grd Grid grdPrices hed Pen Hedit hedSignature hsb Horizontal scroll bar hsbVolume img Image imgIcon ink Pen Ink inkMap key Keyboard key status keyCaps lbl Label lblHelpMessage lin Line linVertical lst List box lstPolicyCodes mdi MDI child form mdiNote mpm MAPI message mpmSentMessage mps MAPI session mpsSession mci MCI mciVideo mnu Menu mnuFileOpen opt (3d) Option Button (3d) optRed (opt3dRed) ole OLE control oleWorksheet out Outline control outOrgChart pic Picture picVGA pnl3d 3d Panel pnl3d rpt Report control rptQtr1Earnings shp Shape controls shpCircle spn Spin control spnPages txt Text Box txtLastName tmr Timer tmrAlarm vsb Vertical scroll bar vsbRate
Object Naming Convention for Database Objects
NOTE: Using a suffix for queries allows each query to be sorted with its associated table in Microsoft Access dialogs (Add Table, List Tables Snapshot).
Prefix Object Type Example ------------------------------------------ db ODBC Database dbAccounts ds ODBC Dynaset object dsSalesByRegion fdc Field collection fdcCustomer fd Field object fdAddress ix Index object ixAge ixc Index collection ixcNewAge qd QueryDef object qdSalesByRegion qry (suffix) Query (see NOTE) SalesByRegionQry ss Snapshot object ssForecast tb Table object tbCustomer td TableDef object tdCustomers
Menu Naming ConventionsApplications frequently use an abundance of menu controls. As a result, you need a different set of naming conventions for these controls. Menu control prefixes should be extended beyond the initial mnu label by adding an additional prefix for each level of nesting, with the final menu caption at the end of the name string. For example:
When this convention is used, all members of a particular menu group are listed next to each other in the object drop-down list boxes (in the code window and property window). In addition, the menu control names clearly document the menu items to which they are attached.
Menu Caption Sequence Menu Handler Name Help.Contents mnuHelpContents File.Open mnuFileOpen Format.Character mnuFormatCharacter File.Send.Fax mnuFileSendFax File.Send.Email mnuFileSendEmail
Naming Conventions for Other ControlsFor new controls not listed above, try to come up with a unique three character prefix. However, it is more important to be clear than to stick to three characters.
For derivative controls, such as an enhanced list box, extend the prefixes above so that there is no confusion over which control is really being used. A lower-case abbreviation for the manufacturer would also typically be added to the prefix. For example, a control instance created from the Visual Basic Professional 3D frame could uses a prefix of fra3d to avoid confusion over which control is really being used. A command button from MicroHelp could use cmdm to differentiate it from the standard command button (cmd).
Third-party ControlsEach third-party control used in an application should be listed in the application's overview comment section, providing the prefix used for the control, the full name of the control, and the name of the software vendor:
Prefix Control Type Vendor cmdm Command Button MicroHelp
Variable and Routine NamingVariable and function names have the following structure: <prefix><body><qualifier><suffix>
Part Description Example -------------------------------------------------------------------------- <prefix> Describes the use and scope of the variable. iGetRecordNext <body> Describes the variable. iGetNameFirst <qualifier> Denotes a derivative of the variable. iGetNameLast <suffix> The optional Visual Basic type character. iGetRecordNext%
The following tables define variable and function name prefixes that are based on Hungarian C notation for Windows. These prefixes should be used with all variables and function names. Use of old Basic suffixes (such as %, &, #, etc.) are discouraged.
Variable and Function Name Prefixes:
NOTE: the values in the Converged column represent efforts to pull together the naming standards for Visual Basic, Visual Basic for Applications, and Access Basic. It is likely that these prefixes will become Microsoft standards at some point in the near future.
Prefix Converged Variable Use Data Type Suffix -------------------------------------------------------------------------- b bln Boolean Integer % c cur Currency - 64 bits Currency @ d dbl Double - 64 bit Double # signed quantity dt dat Date and Time Variant e err Error f sng Float/Single - 32 Single ! bit signed floating point h Handle Integer % i Index Integer % l lng Long - 32 bit Long & signed quantity n int Number/Counter Integer % s str String String $ u Unsigned - 16 bit Long & unsigned quantity udt User-defined type vnt vnt Variant Variant a Array
Scope and Usage Prefixes:
Hungarian notation is as valuable in Visual Basic as it is in C. Although the Visual Basic type suffixes do indicate a variable's data type, they do not explain what a variable or function is used for, or how it can be accessed. Here are some examples:
Prefix Description g Global m Local to module or form st Static variable (no prefix) Non-static variable, prefix local to procedure v Variable passed by value (local to a routine) r Variable passed by reference (local to a routine)
iSend - Represents a count of the number of messages sentEach of these variable names tell a programmer something very different. This information is lost when the variable name is reduced to Send%. Scope prefixes such as g and m also help reduce the problem of name contention especially in multi-developer projects.
bSend - A Boolean flag defining the success of the last Send operation
hSend - A Handle to the Comm interface
Hungarian notation is also widely used by Windows C programmers and constantly referenced in Microsoft product documentation and in industry programming books. Additionally, the bond between C programmers and programmers who use Visual Basic will become much stronger as the Visual C++ development system gains momentum. This transition will result in many Visual Basic programmers moving to C for the first time and many programmers moving frequently back and forth between both environments.
The Body of Variable and Routine NamesThe body of a variable or routine name should use mixed case and should be as long as necessary to describe its purpose. In addition, function names should begin with a verb, such as InitNameArray or CloseDialog.
For frequently used or long terms, standard abbreviations are recommended to help keep name lengths reasonable. In general, variable names greater than 32 characters can be difficult to read on VGA displays.
When using abbreviations, make sure they are consistent throughout the entire application. Randomly switching between Cnt and Count within a project will lead to unnecessary confusion.
Qualifiers on Variable and Routine NamesRelated variables and routines are often used to manage and manipulate a common object. In these cases, use standard qualifiers to label the derivative variables and routines. Although putting the qualifier after the body of the name might seem a little awkward (as in sGetNameFirst, sGetNameLast instead of sGetFirstName, sGetLastName), this practice will help order these names together in the Visual Basic editor routine lists, making the logic and structure of the application easier to understand. The following table defines common qualifiers and their standard meaning:
Qualifier Description (follows Body) -------------------------------------------------------------------------- First First element of a set. Last Last element of a set. Next Next element in a set. Prev Previous element in a set. Cur Current element in a set. Min Minimum value in a set. Max Maximum value in a set. Save Used to preserve another variable that must be reset later. Tmp A "scratch" variable whose scope is highly localized within the code. The value of a Tmp variable is usually only valid across a set of contiguous statements within a single procedure. Src Source. Frequently used in comparison and transfer routines. Dst Destination. Often used in conjunction with Source.
User Defined TypesDeclare user defined types in all caps with _TYPE appended to the end of the symbol name. For example:
When declaring an instance variable of a user defined type, add a prefix to the variable name to reference the type. For example:
Naming ConstantsThe body of constant names should be UPPER_CASE with underscores (_) between words. Although standard Visual Basic constants do not include Hungarian information, prefixes like i, s, g, and m can be very useful in understanding the value and scope of a constant. For constant names, follow the same rules as variables. For Example:
Variant Data TypeIf you know that a variable will always store data of a particular type, Visual Basic can handle that data more efficiently if you declare a variable of that type.
However, the variant data type can be extremely useful when working with databases, messages, DDE, or OLE. Many databases allow NULL as a valid value for a field. Your code needs to distinguish between NULL, 0 (zero), and "" (empty string). Many times, these types of operations can use a generic service routine that does not need to know the type of data it receives to process or pass on the data. For example:
The are some drawbacks, however, to using variants. Code statements that use variants can sometimes be ambiguous to the programmer. For example:
The above examples would be much less ambiguous and easier to read, debug, and maintain if the Visual Basic type conversion routines were used instead. For Example:
Commenting Your CodeAll procedures and functions should begin with a brief comment describing the functional characteristics of the routine (what it does). This description should not describe the implementation details (how it does it) because these often change over time, resulting in unnecessary comment maintenance work, or worse yet, erroneous comments. The code itself and any necessary in-line or local comments will describe the implementation.
Parameters passed to a routine should be described when their functions are not obvious and when the routine expects the parameters to be in a specific range. Function return values and global variables that are changed by the routine (especially through reference parameters) must also be described at the beginning of each routine.
Routine header comment blocks should look like this (see the next section "Formatting Your Code" for an example):
Every non-trivial variable declaration should include an in-line comment describing the use of the variable being declared.
Section Comment Description -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Purpose What the routine does (not how). Inputs Each non-obvious parameter on a separate line with in-line comments Assumes List of each non-obvious external variable, control, open file, and so on. Returns Explanation of value returned for functions. Effects List of each effected external variable, control, file, and so on and the affect it has (only if this is not obvious)
Variables, controls, and routines should be named clearly enough that in- line commenting is only needed for complex or non-intuitive implementation details.
An overview description of the application, enumerating primary data objects, routines, algorithms, dialogs, database and file system dependencies, and so on should be included at the start of the .BAS module that contains the project's Visual Basic generic constant declarations.
NOTE: The Project window inherently describes the list of files in a project, so this overview section only needs to provide information on the most important files and modules, or the files the Project window doesn't list, such as initialization (.INI) or database files.
Formatting Your CodeBecause many programmers still use VGA displays, screen real estate must be conserved as much as possible, while still allowing code formatting to reflect logic structure and nesting.
Standard, tab-based, block nesting indentations should be two to four spaces. More than four spaces is unnecessary and can cause statements to be hidden or accidentally truncated. Less than two spaces does not sufficiently show logic nesting. In the Microsoft Knowledge Base, we use a three-space indent. Use the Environment Options dialog to set the default tab width.
The functional overview comment of a routine should be indented one space. The highest level statements that follow the overview comment should be indented one tab, with each nested block indented an additional tab. For example:
Variables and non-generic constants should be grouped by function rather than by being split off into isolated areas or special files. Visual Basic generic constants such as HOURGLASS should be grouped in a single module (VB_STD.BAS) to keep them separate from application-specific declarations.
OperatorsAlways use an ampersand (&) when concatenating strings, and use the plus sign (+) when working with numerical values. Using a plus sign (+) with non-numerical values, may cause problems when operating on two variants. For example:
ScopeVariables should always be defined with the smallest scope possible. Global variables can create enormously complex state machines and make the logic of an application extremely difficult to understand. Global variables also make the reuse and maintenance of your code much more difficult. Variables in Visual Basic can have the following scope:
In a Visual Basic application, only use global variables when there is no other convenient way to share data between forms. You may want to consider storing information in a control's Tag property, which can be accessed globally using the form.object.property syntax.
Scope Variable Declared In: Visibility -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Procedure-level Event procedure, sub, or Visible in the function procedure in which it is declared Form-level, Declarations section of a form Visible in every Module-level or code module (.FRM, .BAS) procedure in the form or code module Global Declarations section of a code Always visible module (.BAS, using Global keyword)
If you must use global variables, it is good practice to declare all of them in a single module and group them by function. Give the module a meaningful name that indicates its purpose, such as GLOBAL.BAS.
With the exception of global variables (which should not be passed), procedures and functions should only operate on objects that are passed to them. Global variables that are used in routines should be identified in the general comment area at the beginning of the routine. In addition, pass arguments to subs and functions using ByVal, unless you explicitly want to change the value of the passed argument.
Write modular code whenever possible. For example, if your application displays a dialog box, put all the controls and code required to perform the dialog's task in a single form. This helps to keep the application's code organized into useful components and minimizes its runtime overhead.
Third-party ControlsNOTE: The products discussed below are manufactured by vendors independent of Microsoft. Microsoft makes no warranty, implied or otherwise, regarding these products' performance or reliability.
The following table lists standard third-party vendor name prefix characters to be used with control prefixes:
The following table lists standard third-party control prefixes:
Vendor Abbv ------------------------- MicroHelp (VBTools) m Pioneer Software p Crescent Software c Sheridan Software s Other (Misc) o
Control Control Abbr Vendor Example VBX File Type Name Name -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alarm Alarm almm MicroHelp almmAlarm MHTI200.VBX Animate Animate anim MicroHelp animAnimate MHTI200.VBX Callback Callback calm MicroHelp calmCallback MHAD200.VBX Combo Box DB_Combo cbop Pioneer cbopComboBox QEVBDBF.VBX Combo Box SSCombo cbos Sheridan cbosComboBox SS3D2.VBX Check Box DB_Check chkp Pioneer chkpCheckBox QEVBDBF.VBX Chart Chart chtm MicroHelp chtmChart MHGR200.VBX Clock Clock clkm MicroHelp clkmClock MHTI200.VBX Button Command cmdm MicroHelp cmdmCommandButton MHEN200.VBX Button Button DB_Command cmdp Pioneer cmdpCommandButton QEVBDBF.VBX Button (Group) Command cmgm MicroHelp cmgmBtton MHGR200.VBX Button (multiple) Button Command cmim MicroHelp cmimCommandButton MHEN200.VBX Button (icon) CardDeck CardDeck crdm MicroHelp crdmCard MHGR200.VBX Dice Dice dicm MicroHelp dicmDice MHGR200.VBX List Box (Dir) SSDir dirs Sheridan dirsDirList SS3D2.VBX List Box (Drv) SSDrive drvs Sheridan drvsDriveList SS3D2.VBX List Box (File) File List film MicroHelp filmFileList MHEN200.VBX List Box (File) SSFile fils Sheridan filsFileList SS3D2.VBX Flip Flip flpm MicroHelp flpmButton MHEN200.VBX Scroll Bar Form Scroll fsrm MicroHelp fsrmFormScroll ??? Gauge Gauge gagm MicroHelp gagmGauge MHGR200.VBX Graph Graph gpho Other gphoGraph XYGRAPH.VBX Grid Q_Grid grdp Pioneer grdpGrid QEVBDBF.VBX Scroll Bar Horizontal hsbm MicroHelp hsbmScroll MHEN200.VBX Scroll Bar Scroll Bar DB_HScroll hsbp Pioneer hsbpScroll QEVBDBF.VBX Graph Histo hstm MicroHelp hstmHistograph MHGR200.VBX Invisible Invisible invm MicroHelp invmInvisible MHGR200.VBX List Box Icon Tag itgm MicroHelp itgmListBox MHAD200.VBX Key State Key State kstm MicroHelp kstmKeyState MHTI200.VBX Label Label (3d) lblm MicroHelp lblmLabel MHEN200.VBX Line Line linm MicroHelp linmLine MHGR200.VBX List Box DB_List lstp Pioneer lstpListBox QEVBDBF.VBX List Box SSList lsts Sheridan lstsListBox SS3D2.VBX MDI Child MDI Control mdcm MicroHelp mdcmMDIChild ??? Menu SSMenu mnus Sheridan mnusMenu SS3D3.VBX Marque Marque mrqm MicroHelp mrqmMarque MHTI200.VB Picture OddPic odpm MicroHelp odpmPicture MHGR200.VBX Picture Picture picm MicroHelp picmPicture MHGR200.VBX Picture DB_Picture picp Pioneer picpPicture QEVBDBF.VBX Property Vwr Property pvrm MicroHelp pvrmPropertyViewer MHPR200.VBX Viewer Option (Group) DB_RadioGroup radp Pioneer radqRadioGroup QEVBDBF.VBX Slider Slider sldm MicroHelp sldmSlider MHGR200.VBX Button (Spin) Spinner spnm MicroHelp spnmSpinner MHEN200.VBX Spreadsheet Spreadsheet sprm MicroHelp sprmSpreadsheet MHAD200.VBX Picture Stretcher strm MicroHelp strmStretcher MHAD200.VBX Screen Saver Screen Saver svrm MicroHelp svrmSaver MHTI200.VBX Switcher Switcher swtm MicroHelp swtmSwitcher ??? List Box Tag tagm MicroHelp tagmListBox MHEN200.VBX Timer Timer tmrm MicroHelp tmrmTimer MHTI200.VBX ToolBar ToolBar tolm MicroHelp tolmToolBar MHAD200.VBX List Box Tree trem MicroHelp tremTree MHEN200.VBX Input Box Input (Text) txtm MicroHelp inpmText MHEN200.VBX Input Box DB_Text txtp Pioneer txtpText QEVBDBF.VBX Scroll Bar Vertical vsbm MicroHelp vsbmScroll MHEN200.VBX Scroll Bar Scroll Bar DB_VScroll vsbp Pioneer vsbpScroll QEVBDBF.VBX
Article ID: 110264 - Last Review: January 9, 2003 - Revision: 1.1
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This article was written about products for which Microsoft no longer offers support. Therefore, this article is offered "as is" and will no longer be updated.
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