When you attempt to install a CD-ROM product, or attempt to read data
from your CD-ROM drive, you may experience error messages similar to the
CDR 103 Error: Not of High Sierra Format or ISO 9960 Format
You may also experience system problems, such as your system not
detecting when you have inserted a different CD-ROM disc from CD-ROM
software packaged with more than one CD-ROM disc.
Some CD-ROM drives do not comply with the Red Book specification for
radial noise. Documented instances indicate the problem occurs with
triple-and quad-speed NEC CD-ROM drives. CD-ROM drives manufactured by
vendors independent of NEC may experience similar characteristics.
The problem usually occurs with discs more than 70 minutes long.
To work around this problem, you must use a different CD-ROM drive, or
the CD-ROM manufacturer must reduce the length of the CD-ROM disc.
Some Microsoft CD-ROM titles have been returned and re-stamped at the
manufacturing plant to be less than 70 minutes long.
The following section provides information about the following CD-ROM
- Red Book for CD audio
- Yellow Book for CD-ROM and CD-ROM XA
- Green Book for CD-interactive (CD-i)
- Orange Book for recordable CDs
- White Book for Video CD
- Blue Book for Enhanced Music CD (CD Plus)
Red Book describes the physical properties of the compact disc and
the encoding of the digital audio data. It comprises the following
- Audio specification for 16-bit PCM
- Disc specification, including physical parameters
- Optical stylus and parameters including laser wavelength, numerical
aperture, pit sizes and track pitch
- Deviations and block error rate
- Modulation system and error correction
- Control and display system (for example, subcode channels)
A more recent addition to Red Book describes the CD graphics option
using the subcode channels R to W. This describes the various
applications of these subcode channels including graphics and MIDI, both
of which can be used for Karaoke applications.
CD Audio (sometimes called Redbook) is identical to that on standard
audio compact discs. CD audio is digital stereophonic audio that was
digitized at a sampling rate of 44,100 kHz using a 16-bit sample size,
providing excellent fidelity for reproduction of all types of sounds,
including music. When you are playing CD audio, the digital-to-analog
conversion is performed by circuits in the CD-ROM player. In non-
multimedia systems, the analog audio signal is sent directly from the
CD-ROM player to the speakers; in multimedia system, the output is
routed through the sound board (without any further processing) to the
The Red Book standard defines tolerance limits for radial noise. The
disk format for storing digital audio is an international standard that
specifies where and how the data is placed on the disk.
One of the restrictions of this format is CD-ROM data (images, programs,
etc.) and audio must be kept on separate tracks on the disk, as opposed
to being interleaved. This makes it difficult to synchronize sound and
Yellow Book was written in 1984 to describe the extension of CD to
store computer data (CD-ROM). This specification comprises of the
- Disc specification which is a copy of part of the Red Book
- Optical stylus parameters (from Red Book)
- Modulation and error correction (from Red Book)
- Control & display system (from Red Book)
- Digital data structure, which describes the sector structure and
the ECC and EDC for a CD-ROM disc.
As a separate extension to Yellow Book, the CD-ROM XA
specification comprises the following:
- Disc format including Q channel and sector structure using Mode 2
- Data retrieval structure based on ISO 9660 including file
interleaving which is not available for Mode 1 data.
- Audio encoding using ADPCM levels B and C
- Video image encoding (for example, stills)
Green Book, written originally in 1987, describes the CD-
interactive (CD-i) disc, player and operating system and contains the
- CD-i disc format (track layout, sector structure)
- Data retrieval structure which is based on ISO 9660 with some
- Audio data using ADPCM levels A, B and C (cf CD-ROM XA)
- Real-time video data which describes the disc coding of different
types of still images, the video decoder and visual effects
- Program related data, which defines the 68000 processor instruction
set, the character sets to be used and phonetic coding.
- Compact Disc Real Time Operating System, which is the operating
system used in every CD-i player. Green Book specifies the OS
kernel, file managers, drivers and all the system calls available.
- Base case system which is a specification of the minimum CD-i
- Full motion extension which defines the functions provided by the
MPEG cartridge and the software calls available for MPEG decoding.
Green Book is the most comprehensive specification of all the
colored books, specifying in detail not just the disc but the coding of
data and the architecture of the player hardware and software.
CD-i (interactive), or Green Book, is a special variation of the CD-ROM
format that is specifically designed for audiovisual applications. It
allows for interleaved CD-ROM data and audio, thus allowing a completely
synchronized audiovisual sequence. CD-i describes a complete system, not
just a peripheral, and is there fore not compatible with existing
Orange Book defines CD-Recordable discs with multi-session
capability. It is in three parts:
- Part I defines CD-MO (Magneto Optical) re-writable discs, last
updated in November 1990.
- Part II defines CD-WO (Write Once) discs, last updated in January
- Part III defines the CD-E (Erasable) disc format. The tentative
version 0.8 was released in September 1995.
All three parts contain the following sections:
- Disc specification for the unrecorded disc and the recorded disc.
- Pre-groove modulation which is necessary for motor control
information needed during writing.
- Data organization including linking to allow writing at different
- Multi-session and hybrid discs
- Recommendations for measurement of reflectivity, optimum power
control, environment, light fastness, push pull magnitude,
measurement of groove wobble amplitude, wavelength dependency,
jitter, use of pre-gap, serial copy management and others.
White Book defines the Video CD specification. First published in
1993, there have been several versions:
- Ver 1.0: Karaoke CD specification, MPEG-1 data in tracks
- Ver 1.1: Video CD: as 1.0 but chapter marks and multi-volume album
- Ver 2.0: Video CD: addition of stills, generic menus, playlists,
closed caption text.
White Book (ver 2.0) comprises of:
- Disc format including use of tracks, Video CD information area,
segment play item area, audio/video tracks and CD-DA tracks.
- Data Retrieval Structure, compatible with ISO 9660.
- MPEG audio/video track encoding including image sizes allowed,
video/audio bit rate, sector interleaving and examples of MPEG
- Segment play item encoding for video sequences, video stills and
- Play sequence descriptor to allow the playback of preprogrammed
- User data fields for scan data (enabling fast forward/reverse) and
- Examples of play sequences and playback control.
Blue Book defines the Enhanced Music CD (also known as CD Plus)
specification for multi-session pressed disc (not recordable)
comprising audio and data sessions. Enhanced Music CD discs are
intended to be played on any CD audio player, on PCs and on future
custom designed players. The current version 0.9 was released in July
Blue Book allows you to view music videos, photos, lyrics and liner
notes when they are played on PCs that run Windows 95 (yet will still
play music on a standard audio CD player). But if you want to run
software and music titles that employ the Bluebook enhanced CD technology
provided by Windows 95, the CD-ROM must be a multi-session compatible
Blue Book comprises of:
- Disc specification and data format including the two sessions
(audio and data). The second, data session must be a CD-ROM XA
- Directory structure (to ISO 9660) including the directories for CD
Plus information, pictures and data. It also defines the format of
the CD Plus information files, picture file formats and other codes
and file formats.
- MPEG still picture data format.
CD-ROM XA (extended architecture), proposed by Sony, Philips and
Microsoft in 1988, represents a bridge between CD-i and CD-ROM. It
defines a format for storing compressed audio along with other data on a
CD-ROM disk, and the way in which the stored information is read from
the disk. Unlike CD-i, CD-ROM XA is not dependent on specific operating
systems or CPU's. Up to 16 hours of interleaved audio can be stored on
XA specification CD-ROM disks.
Interrupt 24/Mscdex.exe Messages
The "CDR10<X>" error messages correspond to the following critical error
handler messages (interrupt 24 calls) generated by MSCDEX:
CDR100: Unknown Error
CDR101: Not Ready
CDR102: EMS Memory No Longer Valid
CDR103: CDROM Not High Sierra or ISO-9660 Format
CDR104: Door Open
The following are critical errors:
This means an error was reported by the device driver. The most
likely cause is an open drive door, or the disc not being up to
speed. Check the following items when you receive this error:
- Make sure that an audio disc is not in the drive.
- Check the internal flat ribbon cable to make sure it is
- Move the CD-ROM device driver and MSCDEX.EXE statement to the
end of the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
- Clean boot the system.
The EMS memory possibly is corrupt. You need to reboot the system.
"CDR102 EMS memory no longer valid"
The disc needs to be in High Sierra format. Other CD-ROMs are not
recognizable by MSCDEX.
"CDR103 Disc in drive is not High Sierra"
The following are initialization errors:
MSCDEX does not work with DOS Versions 1.x or 2.x.
MSCDEX already is installed. You can have only one instance of
MSCDEX running at a time.
The device driver name given on the MSCDEX command line /D:DEVNAME
was not found. Make sure the name is correctly spelled and the driver
is correctly installed.
"Device driver not found: 'DEVNAME'"
MSCDEX will not install if no /D:<drive name> device driver
arguments are given or if the ones given are not found.
"No valid CDROM device drivers selected"
You need to expand the number of drive letters available using the
Lastdrive command in Config.sys.
"Not enough drive letters available"
This is only a warning. MSCDEX has some minimum memory requirements
"Memory size of X too small, increased to Y"
This is only a warning. You cannot ask for more buffers than you
have available memory.
"Not enough expanded memory, reducing number of buffers"
An error was reported by the Expanded Memory Manager. The Expanded
Memory Manager may be corrupt; it may be necessary to reboot to
"Expanded memory allocation error"
This is a warning. You cannot use Expanded Memory if it is not
there. MSCDEX will continue using normal memory.
"Expanded memory not present or usable"
An illegal command line option was specified.
The third-party products discussed here are manufactured by vendors
independent of Microsoft; we make no warranty, implied or otherwise,
regarding these products' performance or reliability.
For help with CD or DVD drive problems in Windows Vista, visit the following Microsoft web page: