Windows NT 4.0 配置文件和 $ 策略 (第 1 部分,共 6 部分) 的指南

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这篇文章是在一系列文章提供了用于实现客户端工作站和服务器上的 Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 配置文件和 $ 策略的信息和过程的第一个。

与其他节不同本指南的请参阅下列文章 Microsoft 知识库中相应:
185587指南到 6 的 Windows NT 4.0 配置文件和策略一部分 2
185588指南到 6 的 Windows NT 4.0 配置文件和策略一部分 3
185589Windows NT 4.0 配置文件和策略部件 4 / 6 的指南
185591Windows NT 4.0 配置文件和策略部件 6 / 6 的指南

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                   Windows NT Server Operating System
                             White Paper
         Guide to Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Profiles and Policies

Copyright 1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of
Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of
publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions,
it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft,
and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented
after the date of publication.

This White Paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN THIS DOCUMENT.

Microsoft, the BackOffice logo, MS-DOS, Windows, and Windows NT are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

Other product or company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of
their respective owners.

Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052-6399
USA
0997

Abstract
========

This guide provides information and procedures for implementing Microsoft
Windows NT 4.0 Profiles and Policies on client workstations and servers. A
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 User Profile describes the Windows NT
configuration for a specific user, including the user's environment and
preference settings. A System Policy is a set of registry settings that
together define the computer resources available to a group of users or an
individual. With the addition of System Policies and the new User Profile
structure to Windows NT 4.0, network administrators have a greater ability
to control the user environment than they have ever had before.
This document provides the details that administrators need to know to
implement a rollout of User Profiles and System Policies under Windows NT
4.0. Although the primary emphasis is Windows NT, this paper also
discusses how User Profiles are handled with Windows 95 clients and how
the two platforms differ. You should use this guide in conjunction with
your Windows NT 4.0 documentation and Resource Kits.

CONTENTS
========

Introduction
TCO and the User
Profiles, Policies, and the Zero Administration Kit
What are User Profiles and System Policies?
Before You Begin
Key Terminology
Technical Notes
Establishing User Profiles - An Overview
Creating and Administering User Profiles
User Profile Structure
Configuration Preferences Stored in the Registry Hive
Configuration Preferences Stored in Profile Directories
Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 95  User Profile Differences
How User Profiles Are Handled in Windows 95
User Profile Planning and Implementation
Setting Permissions for User Profiles
Encoding Permissions in the User Profile
Selecting a Location to Save User Profiles
Setting Persistent Connections
Working Around Slow Network Links
Creating and Maintaining User Profiles
Creating a New Roaming User Profile for Windows NT 4.0
Creating a New Mandatory User Profile for Windows NT 4.0
Making a Roaming Profile Mandatory in Windows NT 4.0
Changing the User's Ability to Modify a Profile
Enforcing the Use of the Server-based Profile
Creating a New Roaming User Profile for a Windows 95 User
Creating a New Mandatory User Profile for Windows 95
Maintaining User Profiles with Control Panel System Properties
Deleting Profiles
Changing the Profile Type from Roaming to Local
Determining Which Profile Is Displayed
Copying Profiles
Viewing the Contents of the Profiles Directory on a Local Computer
Log Files Used by Profiles
The All Users Shared Profile
Default User Template Profiles
Profile Names and Storage in the Registry
Manually Administering a User Profile through the Registry
Modifying the Default User Profile
Upgrading Windows NT 3.5x Server-based Profiles to Windows NT 4.0 Roaming
Profiles
Upgrading Windows NT 3.5x Mandatory Profiles to  Windows NT 4.0 Mandatory
Profiles
Extracting a User Profile for Use on Another  Domain or Machine
Creating Profiles Without User-Specific Connections
Troubleshooting User Profiles with the UserEnv.log File
System Policy - An Introduction
System Policy Files
Policy Replication
How Policies Are Applied
Additional Implementation Considerations
The System Policy Editor
Installing the System Policy Editor on a Windows NT Workstation
Installing the System Policy Editor on a Windows 95 Computer
Updating the Registry with the System Policy Editor
System Policy Editor Template (.Adm) Files
Configuring Policy Settings
Setting Folder Paths Back to Defaults
Creating a System Policy
Creating Alternate Folder Paths
Setting Up Shortcuts for Server-based Profiles
Deploying Policies for Windows NT 4.0 Machines
Deploying Policies for Windows 95 Machines
Modifying Policy Settings on Stand-Alone Workstations
Creating a Custom .Adm File
Configuring System Policies Based on Geographic Location
Clearing the Documents Available List
Building Fault Tolerance for Custom Shared Folders
Registry Keys Modified by the System Policy Editor Default Templates
Default User Settings
Control Panel Display Application
Wallpaper
Color Scheme
Start Menu Run Command
Settings Folders
Settings Taskbar
Start Menu Find Command
My Computer Drive Icons
Network Neighborhood Icon
Network Neighborhood Display
Network Neighborhood Workgroup Contents
Desktop Display
Start Menu Shut Down Command
Saved Settings
Registry Editing Tools
Windows Applications Restrictions
Custom Programs
Custom Desktop Icons
Start Menu Subfolders
Custom Startup Folder
Custom Network Neighborhood
Custom Start Menu
Shell Extensions
Explorer File Menu
Start Menu Common Program Groups
Taskbar Context Menus
Explorer Context Menu
Network Connections
Explorer Context Menu
Autoexec.bat
Logon Scripts
Task Manager
Welcome Tips
Default Computer Settings
Remote Update
Communities
Permitted Managers
Public Community Traps
Run Command
Drive Shares - Workstation
Drive Shares - Server
Printer Browse Thread
Server Scheduler
Error Beep
Authentication Retries
Authentication Time Limit
RAS Call-back Interval
RAS Auto-disconnect
Shared Programs Folder Path
Shared Desktop Icons Path
Shared Start Menu Path
Shared Startup Folder Path
Logon Banner
Logon Dialog Shut Down Button
Logon Name Display
Logon Scripts
Long File Names
Extended Characters in 8.3 File Names
Read Only Files - Last Access Time
Cached Roaming Profiles
Slow Network Detection
Slow Network Timeout
Dialog Box Timeout
Registry Entries Not Included in the System Policy Editor
Autorun
Start Banner
Appendix B - Implementing User Profiles
Existing Windows NT 3.5x Roaming Profile
Existing Windows NT 3.5x Roaming Profile
Migrating Windows NT 3.5x Roaming Profile to Windows NT 4.0 Roaming
Profile
Migrating Windows NT 3.5x Mandatory Profile to Windows NT 4.0 Mandatory
Profile
Migrating Windows NT 3.5x Mandatory Profile to Windows NT 4.0 Roaming
Profile
Creating a New Windows NT 4.0 Roaming Profile
Creating a New Windows NT 4.0 Mandatory Profile
Updating and Changing a Roaming Profile to a Mandatory Profile
Changing a Roaming Profile to a Mandatory Profile
Appendix C -  Usage Notes
Important Information for Administrators Regarding User Logons and User
Logoffs
Recent Updates to Profiles Since Retail Release
Recent Updates to Policies Since Retail Release
APPENDIX D - Related Knowledge Base Articles
Profiles
Policies

INTRODUCTION
============

Not too many years ago, information technology professionals faced a
serious challenge in controlling the mounting costs of mainframe use. It
seemed that everyone-clerks, writers, developers, and systems
administrators-all had terminals and were using the system for everything
from numbers crunching to typing letters. Networks became bogged down, and
IT professionals were given the task of getting "nonessential operations"
off the mainframe. Their decision was to deploy personal computers in the
enterprise-with emulation software for mainframe access and local software
for tasks where central processing or data sharing were not required.
Gradually, as PCs became more powerful, more and more operations moved to
the desktop. And as PC networking matured, many businesses found that a PC-
based network built on commodity hardware and off-the-shelf software
was their best business solution.

Lately, however, we've come full circle on this. It seems that the total
cost of ownership (or TCO)-the real cost of maintaining a distributed
personal computer network-is far from trivial. TCO includes the initial
capital cost of hardware and software, deployment and configuration
expense, costs associated with deploying hardware and software updates,
training and retraining, day-to-day maintenance and administration, and
telephone and on-site technical support. With these escalating costs in
mind, Microsoft and others are working together on several initiatives to
lower the total cost of ownership of personal computers.

TCO AND THE USER
================

One of the major costs highlighted in recent reports on Total Cost of
Ownership (TCO), is lost productivity at the desktop caused by user error,
such as changing the system configuration and rendering the computer
unworkable, or system distractions and complexities, for example too many
features or nonessential applications installed on the desktop. To solve
these problems, system administrators need a means to control a user's
access to key configuration files and to features and applications that
are not required to do that user's particular job. To be successful, this
means of control must be flexible and customizable-the system
administrator must be able to control the computer configurations of
individuals and groups of users based on user job responsibilities and
computer literacy.

PROFILES, POLICIES, AND THE ZERO ADMINISTRATION KIT
===================================================

The Zero Administration Kit (ZAK) for the Microsoft Windows NT version 4.0
operating system is designed to help the corporate administrator address
some of the issues arising from user operations. ZAK is a set of
methodologies for deploying Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 that greatly reduces
the burden of individual desktop management for task-based workers. With
ZAK, system administrators can establish user profiles, system policies,
and security to reduce some of the administrative costs associated with
managing end-users in an enterprise network.

ZAK's methodologies are based on the underlying technologies and
capabilities of Windows NT 4.0, and as such these techniques can readily
be adapted to accommodate a corporation's specific computing requirements.
In the near future, you will see additional TCO-reducing features appear
in Microsoft Windows 98, Windows NT 5.0, and Microsoft Systems Management
Server. Central to these features is the idea of centralized desktop
control. This is accomplished through User Profiles and System Policies-
the subject of this paper.

WHAT ARE USER PROFILES AND SYSTEM POLICIES?
===========================================

A Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 User Profile describes the Windows NT
configuration for a specific user, including the user's environment and
preference settings. For example, those settings and configuration options
specific to the user-such as installed applications, desktop icons, color
options, and so forth-are contained in a User Profile. This profile is
built in part from System Policy information (for example, those things
that a user has access to and those things that the user can and cannot
change) and in part from permitted, saved changes that a user makes to
customize his or her desktop.

A System Policy is a set of registry settings that together define the
computer resources available to a group of users or an individual.
Policies define the various facets of the desktop environment that a
system administrator needs to control, such as which applications are
available, which applications appear on the user's desktop, which
applications and options appear in the Start menu, who can change
attributes of their desktops and who cannot, and so forth.
With the addition of System Policies and the new User Profile structure to
Windows NT 4.0, network administrators have a greater ability to control
the user environment than they ever have had before. Many of the requests
that customers submitted, including providing more options in controlling
the user's desktop, accessibility to applications and system tools,
minimizing administrative overhead, and scalability enhancements, have
been added. And, as with every release, Microsoft encourages customer
feedback on enhancements to the Windows NT operating system.

This document provides the details that administrators need to implement a
rollout of User Profiles and System Policies under Windows NT 4.0.
Although the primary emphasis is Windows NT, this paper also discusses how
User Profiles are handled with Windows 95 clients and how the two
platforms differ.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN
================

Before proceeding with this document, we recommend that you read Chapters
3 and 4 of the Windows NT 4.0 Concepts and Planning Guide. In addition,
you should be familiar with the following terms and concepts.

KEY TERMINOLOGY
===============

Directory Replication
The copying of a master set of directories from a server (called the
export server) to specified servers or workstations (called import
computers) in the same or other domains. Replication simplifies the task
of maintaining identical sets of directories and files on multiple
computers, because only a single master copy of the data is maintained.
Files are replicated when they are added to an export directory and each
time a change is saved to one of the exported files.

Domain Structure
In Windows NT, a domain is a collection of computers defined by the
administrator of a Windows NT Server network that share a common directory
database. A domain provides access to the centralized user accounts and
group accounts maintained by the domain administrator. Each domain has a
unique name.

Home Directory
A home directory is a directory that is accessible to the user and
contains files and programs for that user. A home directory can be
assigned to a single user or to a group of users.

Local Profile
A local profile is specific to a computer. A user who has a local profile
on a particular computer can gain access to that profile only while logged
on to that computer.

Mandatory Profile
A mandatory profile is a preconfigured roaming profile that the user
cannot change. In most cases, these are assigned to a person or a group of
people for whom a common interface and standard configuration is required.

NetLogon Service
For Windows NT Server, the NetLogon service authenticates domain logons
and keeps the domain's directory database synchronized between the primary
domain controller (PDC) and the backup domain controllers (BDCs).

Regedt32.exe
The 32-bit version of the Registry Editor.

Registry
The registry is a database where Windows NT internal configuration
information and machine- and user-specific settings are stored.

Registry Hive
A hive is a section of the registry that is saved as a file. The registry
subtree is divided into hives (named for their resemblance to the cellular
structure of a beehive). A hive is a discrete body of keys, subkeys, and
values.

Roaming Profile
A roaming profile is stored on a network share and can be accessed from
any computer. A user who has a roaming profile can log on to any computer
for which that profile is valid and access the profile. (Note that a
profile is only valid on the platform for which it was created-for
example, a Windows NT 4.0 profile cannot be used on a Windows 95
computer.)

Roaming User
A roaming user is a user who logs on to the network from different
computers at different times. This type of user may use a kiosk or may
share a bank of computers with other users. A roaming user stores his or
her user profile on a network share, and can log on to any networked
computer and access that profile.

System Policy
A System Policy is a set of registry settings that together define the
computer resources available to a group of users or an individual. You
create system policies with the System Policy Editor. System policies
allow
an administrator to control user work environments and actions, and to
enforce system configurations.

%systemroot%
An environment variable that expands to become the root directory
containing Windows NT files. The directory name is specified when Windows
NT is installed (normally, this directory name is c:\winnt).

%systemroot%\profiles
A folder in the root directory that contains the user profiles for each
user of the computer.

%username%
An environment variable that expands to become the user account ID for the
current logged on user. This identifies the user account to Windows NT.

TECHNICAL NOTES
===============

Several portions of this guide refer to registry locations that allow you
to change certain behaviors of Windows NT and modify settings. For this
reason, we include the following warning.

Caution:
Using Registry Editor incorrectly can cause system-wide problems that may
require you to reinstall Windows NT to correct them. Microsoft cannot
guarantee that any problems resulting from the use of Registry Editor can
be resolved. In addition, portions of this guide refer to a registry hive
called NTuser.xxx. In instances where this is used, .xxx can be replaced
with either .dat or .man.

ESTABLISHING USER PROFILES - AN OVERVIEW
========================================

A Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 User Profile describes the Windows NT
configuration for a specific user, including the user's environment and
preference settings. A User Profile can be local, roaming, or mandatory. A
local profile is specific to a given computer. A user who creates a local
profile on a particular computer can gain access to that profile only
while logged on to that computer. Conversely, a roaming profile is stored
on a network share and can be accessed from any networked computer. A user
who has a roaming profile can log on to any networked computer for which
that profile is valid and access the profile. A mandatory profile is a
preconfigured roaming profile that the user cannot change. As a system
administrator, you may want to use mandatory profiles for a group of
people who require a common interface and standard configuration.

One of the primary goals of User Profiles is to allow a user's system and
desktop customizations to travel with the user from computer to computer,
without requiring the user to reconfigure any settings. When a user logs
on to any computer that supports his or her roaming profile, the desktop
appears-just as the user left it the last time he or she logged off. With
roaming user support, users can share computers, but each user has his or
her personal desktop on any computer in the network (both roaming and
mandatory profiles support this functionality).

CREATING AND ADMINISTERING USER PROFILES
========================================

User Profiles can be created and administered in several different ways as
will be described next. Note that as a system administrator, you determine
whether users can modify their profiles.

 - You create a User Profile that is not modifiable for a particular user
   or group (this is a mandatory profile).

 - You establish a network Default User Profile that applies to all new
   users on Windows NT 4.0 computers. After downloading this default
   profile and logging on, the user can customize the profile (provided
   that it is not mandatory).

 - You allow a new user to use the local Default User Profile on the
   Windows NT 4.0 computer where the user logs on. After logging on, the
   user can customize the profile (provided that it is not mandatory).

 - You copy a template User Profile, and assign the copy to a user. The
   user can then customize the profile (provided that it is not a
   mandatory profile).

Profiles can be stored on a network server or cached on the local machine.
(Cached profiles are located in the \%systemroot%\Profiles directory.)
Caching a profile reduces the total time to log on and load the profile;
however, in a roaming user or kiosk environment, this approach may not be
optimal. This option is controlled by the administrator.

USER PROFILE STRUCTURE
======================

A User Profile is comprised of a Windows NT registry hive and a set of
profile directories. The registry is a database used to store machine- and
user-specific settings, and portions of the registry can be saved as
files, called hives. These hives can then be reloaded for use as
necessary. User Profiles take advantage of the hive feature to provide
roaming profile functionality.

The User Profile registry hive is the NTuser.dat in file form, and is
mapped to the HKEY_CURRENT_USER portion of the registry when the user logs
on. The NTuser.dat hive maintains the user's environment preferences when
the user is logged on. It stores those settings that maintain network
connections, Control Panel configurations unique to the user (such as the
desktop color and mouse), and application-specific settings. The series of
profile directories store shortcut links, desktop icons, startup
applications, and so forth. Together, these two components record all user-
configurable settings that can migrate from computer to computer.
Details are provided below.

CONFIGURATION PREFERENCES STORED IN THE REGISTRY HIVE
=====================================================

The Ntuser.dat file contains the following configuration settings.

 - Windows NT Explorer settings. All user-definable settings for Windows
   NT Explorer, as well as persistent network connections.

 - Taskbar. All personal program groups and their properties, all program
   items and their properties, and all taskbar settings.

 - Printer settings. All network printer connections.

 - Control Panel. All user-defined settings made in the Control Panel.

 - Accessories. All user-specific application settings affecting the
   Windows NT environment, including: Calculator, Clock, Notepad, Paint,
   and HyperTerminal, among others.

 - Help bookmarks. Any bookmarks placed in the Windows NT Help system.
   Configuration Preferences Stored in Profile Directories
   The profile directories are designed to contain the following
   configuration settings.

 - Application data. Application-specific data, such as a custom
   dictionary for a word processing program. Application vendors decide
   what data to store in this directory.

 - Desktop. Desktop items, including files and shortcuts.

 - Favorites. Shortcuts to program items and favorite locations.

 - NetHood.* Shortcuts to Network Neighborhood items.

 - Personal. Shortcuts to program items. Also a central store for any
   documents that the user creates. Applications should be written to save
   files here by default.

 - PrintHood.* Shortcuts to printer folder items.

 - Recent. Shortcuts to the most recently used items.

 - SendTo. Shortcuts to document storage locations and applications.

 - Start Menu. Shortcuts to program items.

 - Templates.* Shortcuts to template items.

   * These directories are hidden by default. To see these directories,
   change the View Options.

WINDOWS NT 4.0 AND WINDOWS 95 - USER PROFILE DIFFERENCES
========================================================

Windows 95 Profiles are very similar in behavior to Windows NT 4.0
Profiles, but there are some differences.

Unlike Windows NT 4.0, Windows 95 downloads and writes User Profiles to
the user's home directory. When the Windows 95 user first logs on, the UNC
path specified in the user account's home directory path is checked for
the Windows 95 User Profile. You can modify this behavior, however. See
the Windows 95 Resource Kit for more information. Windows 95 and Windows
NT 4.0 User Profiles have the following additional functional differences:

 - Windows 95 does not support common groups.

 - Windows 95 can be configured to copy only the shortcut (.lnk) and
   Program Information Files (.pif) when the User Profile is downloaded,
   whereas Windows NT downloads all file, shortcut, and directory objects.

 - Windows 95 User Profiles do not support a centrally stored Default User
   Profile.

 - Windows 95 uses different files for the registry portion of User
   Profiles. (Refer to the following table.) Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0
   profiles are not interchangeable, primarily because the registry hive,
   which is a key component of the User Profile, is incompatible between
   operating system versions.

   Windows NT 4.0 file   Equivalent Windows 95 file
   ------------------------------------------------
   Ntuser.dat            User.dat
   Ntuser.dat.log        User.da0
   Ntuser.man            User.man

NOTE: The Windows 95 User.da0 and Windows NT 4.0 Ntuser.dat.log, while
equivalent, provide slightly different functionality. Windows 95 writes a
copy of User.dat to User.da0 each time the user logs off. Windows NT uses
the Ntuser.dat.log file as a transaction log file. This allows for fault
tolerance in the event that a User Profile must be recovered.

Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 file structures are identical with the
exception of the Application Data directory. Windows 95 does not support
this directory.

Windows 95 User Profiles can be stored on NetWare servers. For more
information on configuring a client with a Primary Network Logon of Client
for NetWare Networks, see the chapter "Windows 95 on NetWare Networks" in
the Windows 95 Resource Kit. For more information on configuring a client
that uses Microsoft Service for NetWare Directory Services, see the online
Help that accompanies the service.
				

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文章编号: 161334 - 最后修改: 2007年8月9日 - 修订: 3.1
这篇文章中的信息适用于:
  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 开发员版
  • Microsoft Windows 95
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