??? ????? TCP/IP ???????? ?????? ???????

?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
???? ???????: 164015 - ??? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????.
????? ???? | ?? ????

?? ??? ??????

?????

??? ????? "???????? ?????? ?? ???????/??????? ????????" (TCP/IP) ??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ????? Microsoft Windows? ???? ???? ????? IP ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? TCP/IP.

?????? TCP/IP ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? TCP/IP ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????. ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? IP. ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ???????.

??????? ????

???? ????? ?? ???? TCP/IP ????????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????. ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? (??? ???? ??? ???? ???) ?? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????. ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? IP ??? ?????. ???? ??? ??????? ?????? (???? ?????????)? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????. ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? IP ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????? IP (???????? ????????) ??????? ????? ??????.

?????? IP: ??????? ???????? ???????

????? IP ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??????) ??? ???? TCP/IP.

???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? IP ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? 192.168.123.132. ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? IP ?????? ?????.

??? ???? ??????? ????? IP ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? 192.168.123.132 ?? (???????? ???????) ????? ?? ?? ??????: 110000000101000111101110000100. ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??????.

????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? (????? ????). ????? ???? ???? ????? IP ?? 11000000.10101000.01111011.10000100. ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? (192.168.123.132). ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????.

???? ???? ???? TCP/IP ????? ?????? (WAN) ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ????. ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????. ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????.

???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ????? IP ??? ?????. ??????? ????? ????? ?? ????? IP ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????. ??? ???? ???? 192.168.123.132 ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????:
   192.168.123.    ??????
              .132 ??????
				
- ?? -
   192.168.123.0 - ????? ??????.
   0.0.0.132     - ????? ??????.
				

???? ?????? ???????

???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? TCP/IP. ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? TCP/IP ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????.

?? TCP/IP? ???? ????? ????? IP ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????????. ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????. ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? 255.255.255.0. ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? 255 ?? ??????? ??????? ????? 11111111? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??:
   11111111.11111111.11111111.0000000
				
?? ??? ????? IP ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???????:
   11000000.10101000.01111011.10000100 -- ????? IP (192.168.123.132)
   11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 -- ???? ?????? ??????? (255.255.255.0)
				
??? ????? ??? ?? ?? (??? ????? 1 ?? ???? ?????? ???????) ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ? ?? (??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????) ?????? ??????. ????? ?? ??? ?? ???:
   11000000.10101000.01111011.00000000 -- ????? ?????? (192.168.123.0)
   00000000.00000000.00000000.10000100 -- ????? ?????? (000.000.000.132)
				
????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????? 255.255.255.0? ?? ???? ?????? ?? 192.168.123.0? ?????? ?????? ?? 0.0.0.132. ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? 192.168.123.0 (?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?????)? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? 192.168.123.132? ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????.

??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????. ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???:
   ????                 ?????
   255.255.255.192         1111111.11111111.1111111.11000000
   255.255.255.224         1111111.11111111.1111111.11100000
				
???? ??? ????????? (RFC) ???????? 1878 (????? ?? ???? http://www.internic.net) ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ????? TCP/IP.

???? ???????

??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? InterNIC (http://www.internic.net)? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????????. ???? ????? ?????? IP ??? ??? ????. ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? A ?B ?C. ????? ??????? D ?E? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????. ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?????. ????? ????? ??? ????? IP ?????? ??? ???????? ??????. ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? A ?B ?C? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ?????:
  • ?????? ????? ????? A ???? ???? ????? ???????? 255.0.0.0 ?????? ??? 0-127 ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????. ???????? 10.52.36.11 ?? ????? ?? ????? A. ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? 10? ??? ?????? ??? 1 ?126? ???????.
  • ?????? ????? ????? B ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?? 255.255.0.0 ?????? ??? 128-191 ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????. ???????? 172.16.52.63 ?? ????? ?? ????? B. ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? 172? ??? ?????? ??? 128 ?191? ???????.
  • ?????? ????? ????? C ???? ???? ????? ???????? 255.255.255.0 ?????? ??? 192-223 ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????. ???????? 192.168.123.132 ?? ????? ?? ????? C. ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? 192? ??? ?????? ??? 192 ?223? ???????.
?? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????? (?? ??????? ???????) ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????. ???? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????.

?????? ???????

???? ????? ???? TCP/IP ?? ??? A ?? B ?? C ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????. ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? (?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? IP) ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????.

?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? IP ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????. ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? (?? ??? ??????) ???? ????? TCP/IP. ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ????. ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? C 192.168.123.0 ??. (???????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????????). ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? 192.168.123.1 ??? 192.168.123.254 ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??.

????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? 192.168.123.0 ?192.168.123.255 ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????. ???? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????. ??? ??????? ??????? 255 (?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????) ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????. ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????.

??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? IP ??? ??? ???? ????. ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????. ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????. ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ??????.

?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ????? ???? ???? ?? "???????" ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????. ????? ???? ?????? ??????? 255.255.255.192 ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??????. ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? 255.255.255.192 ????? ?? 1111111.11111111.1111111.11000000. ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? 00000000 (0) ?01000000 (64) ?10000000 (128) ?11000000 (192). (??????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? 255.255.255.192 ????? ???? ?????. ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? RFC 1878). ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????.

???????? ???? ???? ????? ?? 255.255.255.192? ????? ???? 192.168.123.0 ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????: 192.168.123.0 ?192.168.123.64 ?192.168.123.128 ?192.168.123.192. ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????:
   192.168.123.1-62
   192.168.123.65-126
   192.168.123.129-190
   192.168.123.193-254
				
????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? 0 ?? 63 ?? 64 ?? 127 ?? 128 ?? 191 ?? 192 ?? 255.

????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? 192.168.123.71 ?192.168.123.133. ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? C ????????? ???? ?? 255.255.255.0? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? 192.168.123.0. ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? 255.255.255.192? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? 192.168.123.71 ??? ?????? 192.168.123.64 ???????? 192.168.123.133 ??? ?????? 192.168.123.128.

????????? ??????????

??? ????? ???? ??????? TCP/IP ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????. ????? ???????? TCP/IP? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ???? ??? ????? ????? ???? TCP/IP ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??????.

????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ???????? TCP/IP? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? IP ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? IP ????? ??. ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????.

??? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????. ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? TCP/IP ?????? ??. ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????.

??????? ??????? ????????

???? ?????? ????? TCP/IP ????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? TCP/IP ?????? ????? ?????????. ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? TCP/IP ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? TCP/IP ???????.

???? ???? ????? ??? ????: ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???????. ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ????? (??? ????? ?????? ???????) ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? 255.255.255.0 ?? ????? TCP/IP? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????. ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????? C ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ???? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? A ?? B ?? C. ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? TCP/IP ???? ??????.

????? IP ??? ????: ?? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? IP ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???????. ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????. ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????. ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? IP ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? IP. ?? ???? ???? ?????? IP ??? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ???????.

?????? ???????? ??? ?????: ?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????. ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??????. ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? TCP/IP ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????????.

?????

???? ?????? ?? TCP/IP ???:

"TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols," Richard Stevens, Addison Wesley, 1994

"Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume 1: Principles, Protocols, and Architecture," Douglas E. Comer, Prentice Hall, 1995

???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? TCP/IP ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????????.

?????????

????? ???? -- ????? IP ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????.

???? -- ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? TCP/IP.

???????? -- ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? IP.

InterNIC -- ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? IP ??? ????????.

IP -- ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? TCP/IP ?? ??? ????????.

????? IP -- ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? TCP/IP ?? ??? ????????.

?????? -- ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????. ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? IP ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??????.

????? ?????? -- ????? IP ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???.

?????? -- ??? ? ??? ????? ? ??? ????? IP ?? ??. ?????? ??? ???? ?? 00000000-11111111 ?????? ?? ????? ??????? 0- 255.

?????? -- ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? TCP/IP ?? ???? ????? ??????.

RFC (??? ?????????) -- ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????.

?????? -- ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? IP ??????.

???? ???? ????? -- ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? IP ???????.

?????? ??????? -- ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????.

TCP/IP -- ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????.

???? ????? ?????? (WAN) -- ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????. ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????.
?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? "????? ??????" ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? Microsoft. ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????. ???? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????.

???????

???? ???????: 164015 - ????? ??? ??????: 17/????? ??????/1434 - ??????: 1.0
????? ???
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Edition
  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.51
  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 3.1
  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 3.5
  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 3.51
  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Developer Edition
  • Microsoft Windows NT Advanced Server 3.1
  • Microsoft Windows 95
????? ??????: 
kbnetwork kbusage KB164015

????? ???????

 

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