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Note Creating delegated subnetted reverse lookup zones is not a trivial task. It is important to understand how DNS zones work before attempting to create subnetted reverse lookup zones. There are numerous notes throughout this document to which you should pay close attention. It is recommended that you first attempt these procedures in a test environment before deploying them on a live network because of the ease with which mistakes can occur during configuration.
The rapid growth of the Internet community created the need to subnetwork full IP networks into smaller portions. In a subnetted environment, DNS servers can easily delegate authority of forward lookup zones because they are independent of the underlying subnetted infrastructure. However, because of the inverse structure of reverse lookup zones and their strict reliance on the specific subnet structure, delegation of these zones requires special considerations. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has created RFC 2317, "Classless IN-ADDR.ARPA Delegation," which discusses these considerations.
Delegating subnetted reverse lookup zones complements the ability to delegate forward lookup zones. This flexibility in zone ownership allows you, as the administrator of a parent domain, to delegate control of both a child subdomain and a corresponding subnet of addresses to another administrator. Conversely, as the administrator of a child domain, you now have the control necessary to make changes to both DNS host (A) records or IP address (PTR) records without having to make a request for change through the parent domain.
This article discusses how to configure delegated subnetted reverse lookup zones for a Microsoft Windows DNS server.
Note Simply because your network environment is subnetted does not imply that your DNS server must be configured in the manner described in this article. Creating delegated subnetted reverse lookup zones is an administrative choice only; it is not solely dictated by the underlying subnetted infrastructure.
A "classful" IP addressing scheme is one that does not break an IP network down into smaller segments. For example, a class C address of 192.168.1.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 is a classful IP addressing scheme.
A "classless" IP addressing scheme is one that uses a subnet mask to divide an IP address into smaller segments. For example, a class C address of 192.168.1.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192 is a classless IP addressing scheme. Along with this network, you would also have the following IP network addresses: 192.168.1.64, 192.168.1.128, and 192.168.1.192.
When subnetting IP networks, additional bits are taken from the host portion of the IP address and given to the network portion. This is defined by adding additional bits to the subnet mask. The value 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 shows us a classful subnet mask for a Class C network of 255.255.255.0, while the value 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 illustrates the classless subnet mask of 255.255.255.192. Therefore, from the example above, we know that:
If the subnet mask is The subnet mask bit-count is --------------------- ---------------------------- 255.255.255.128 25 255.255.255.192 26 255.255.255.224 27 255.255.255.240 28 255.255.255.248 29 255.255.255.252 30 255.255.255.254 31
The syntaxDelegated subnetted reverse lookup zones can be used to transfer administrative control between any parent and child IN-ADDR.ARPA zone in the DNS. Common configurations involve an ISP (Parent) delegating to a Customer Site (Child) or a Corporate Headquarters (Parent) delegating to a Corporate Remote Site (Child). Because the ISP scenario is most typical, it will be used in the following example.
When creating classless reverse lookup zones, you may use notation such as the following:
<subnet>-<subnet mask bit count>.100.168.192.in-addr.arpa orFor example:
<subnet>/<subnet mask bit count>.100.168.192.in-addr.arpa or
<subnet>.<subnet mask bit count>.100.168.192.in-addr.arpa or
SubnetX<subnet>.100.168.192.in-addr.arpa (where X is the subnet number assigned by parent) or
64-18.104.22.168.in-addr.arpa orThis indicates that the subnetted reverse lookup zone is the 64 subnetwork that is using 26 bits for its subnet mask.
Note If you will be performing any Zone Transfers, between parent and child you need to check the syntax of the files that will be transferred between DNS servers. Not all versions of DNS servers will support the various syntax methods defined in the RFC (the hyphen, the slash, etc.). Microsoft DNS will support any of these methods.
Note Whichever syntax is chosen in the Parent domain MUST be identical to the syntax used in the Child domain.
The checklistFilling out the following checklist will make walking through this document easier.
Here is the example we will use of an ISP who has taken a Class C range and subnetted it into 4 subnets by using the 255.255.255.192 subnet mask. The 4 subnets are 192.168.100.0, 192.168.100.64, 192.168.100.128 and 192.168.100.192. The subnet being delegated to the Customer Site is the second range, that is the 64 network using 65-126 for the host IP addresses.
Parent Checklist Child Checklist ---------------- --------------- <Parent DNS server name> <Child DNS server name> <Parent DNS server IP> <Child DNS server IP> <subnet mask> <subnet mask> <subnet><syntax><subnet mask bit count> <subnet><syntax><subnet mask bit count>
Parent Checklist Child Checklist ---------------- --------------- NS.microsoft.com NS1.msn.com 192.168.43.8 192.168.100.126 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.192 0-26 64-26 64-26 128-26 192-26
The parent walkthrough for Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 environmentsLaunch the DNS MMC (Microsoft Management Console).Under view, change from standard view to advanced. Highlight Reverse Lookup Zones, right click and select new zone. Select Zone Type of Active Directory Integrated or Standard Primary, click next. Type in either the non-subnetted network ID (for example, 192.168.100) or the reverse lookup zone name (for example, 100.168.192.in-addr.arpa) for the non-subnetted class C address, click next. If you selected standard primary, you can either create a new zone file or if there is an existing zone file, you can place it in the %systemroot%\winnt\system32\dns directory and the server will read it from that directory. Once the primary parent zone is created, right click on the newly created zone, and select new delegation. Add the naming convention you choose as the parent for the delegated child zone, (for example, 64-26). Be sure to communicate that naming convention to the administrator of the child domain. See examples. Add the CNAME (ALIAS) RR (resource records) for the devices within each of the subnets. For example:
65 CNAME 65.64-22.214.171.124.in-addr.arpa.Note Dynamic updates for subnetted reverse lookups do not work in Windows 2000. The records will need to be added manually. Using "Create Associated PTR record" checkbox will not work for the subnetted reverse lookup zone when "A" (host) record is created through GUI.
The parent walkthrough for Windows NT 4.0 environmentsNote The Microsoft DNS Manager can be used to set up the reverse lookup zone for that name server, as well as the subnetted reverse lookup zone or zones. After the in-addr.arpa zone and the subnetted in-addr.arpa zone(s) are created, the files will need to be manually edited to include the NS, CNAME, and PTR records in each zone file.
Note Several prerequisites are assumed in this example. It is assumed that the Microsoft DNS server has been installed and that the TCP/IP properties (IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway, and so on) have been configured correctly.
The child walkthrough for Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 environments
The child walkthrough for Windows NT 4.0 environments
Sample zone files
Parent subnetted reverse lookup zone file
Note The ellipse, "...", indicates the unique IP addresses and hosts between 67 and 126. Ellipses are not valid in the file.
; ; Database file 100.168.192.in-addr.arpa.dns for 100.168.192.in-addr.arpa zone. ; Zone version: 4 ; @ IN SOA NS.microsoft.com. administrator.microsoft.com. ( 4 ; serial number 3600 ; refresh 600 ; retry 86400 ; expire 3600 ) ; minimum TTL ; ; Zone NS records ; @ NS NS.microsoft.com. ; ; Zone records ; ; ; Delegated sub-zone: 64-126.96.36.199.in-addr.arpa. ; 64-26 NS NS1.msn.com. ; End delegation 65 CNAME 65.64-188.8.131.52.in-addr.arpa. 66 CNAME 66.64-184.108.40.206.in-addr.arpa. 67 CNAME 67.64-220.127.116.11.in-addr.arpa. ... 126 CNAME 67.64-18.104.22.168.in-addr.arpa.
Child subnetted reverse lookup zone file
Note Again, in the above examples, the ellipses indicate the omitted IP addresses between 67 and 126. Ellipses are not valid in the file.
; ; Database file 64-22.214.171.124.in-addr.arpa.dns for 64-126.96.36.199.in-addr.arpa zone. ; Zone version: 1 ; @ IN SOA NS1.msn.com. administrator.msn.com. ( 1 ; serial number 3600 ; refresh 600 ; retry 86400 ; expire 3600 ) ; minimum TTL ; ; Zone NS records ; @ NS NS1.msn.com. ; ; Zone records ; 65 PTR host65.msn.com. 66 PTR host66.msn.com. 67 PTR host67.msn.com. ... 126 PTR host126.msn.com.
For additional information about DNS, please see the following white paper available on the Microsoft anonymous ftp server:
File Name: Dnswp.exe
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/bussys/winnt/winnt-docs/papersTitle: "DNS and Microsoft Windows NT 4.0"
For more information about Classless IN-ADDR.ARPA Delegation, see RFC 2317. For more information about how to obtain this RFC, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/185262/ )How to obtain Request for Comments documents from the Internet
Article ID: 174419 - Last Review: February 23, 2007 - Revision: 3.4