Cara menggunakan MFC membuat Microsoft Excel bagan

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RINGKASAN

Artikel ini membahas cara menggunakan versi 4.2 Microsoft Foundation Perpustakaan kelas (MFC) diinstal dengan Microsoft Visual C++ versi 5.0 dan 6.0 untuk mengotomatisasi Microsoft Excel sehingga akan mengisi lembar kerja dengan data dan membuat grafik.

INFORMASI LEBIH LANJUT

Anda dapat menyalin kode dalam artikel ini untuk fungsi pengendali pesan dari acara yang didefinisikan dalam berkas .cpp MFC. Namun, tujuan kode adalah untuk menggambarkan proses menggunakan antarmuka IDispatch dan anggota fungsi yang ditetapkan dalam perpustakaan jenis Excel. Manfaat utama datang dari membaca dan memahami kode sehingga Anda dapat memodifikasi contoh, atau menulis kode dari awal untuk mengotomatisasi Microsoft Excel 97, Excel 2000 atau Excel 2002.

Catatan untuk mengotomatisasi Microsoft Excel 2000 dan kemudian:

Beberapa metode dan properti telah berubah untuk Microsoft Excel 2000 dan kemudian. Untuk informasi tambahan tentang cara menggunakan kode contoh yang dijelaskan dalam artikel ini dengan Microsoft Excel 2000 dan kemudian perpustakaan jenis, silakan lihat artikel berikut pada Basis Pengetahuan Microsoft:
224925 INFO: Perpustakaan jenis untuk kantor dapat berubah dengan rilis baru

Langkah-langkah untuk membuat proyek

  1. Di Microsoft Excel, buat buku kerja baru yang bernama Test.xls dan menyimpannya dalam direktori akar dari pengandar C.
  2. Ikuti langkah-langkah 1 sampai 12 berikut Microsoft basis pengetahuan artikel untuk membuat contoh proyek yang menggunakan antarmuka IDispatch dan fungsi anggota didefinisikan dalam Excel Perpustakaan jenis:
    178749 Cara membuat sebuah proyek otomatisasi menggunakan MFC dan perpustakaan jenis
  3. Di atas AutoProjectDlg.cpp, tambahkan baris berikut:
          #include "excel8.h" // excel9.h for Excel 2000, excel.h for Excel 2002
    					
  4. Tambahkan kode berikut untuk CAutoProjectDlg::OnRun() di AutoProjectDLG.cpp file.

    Contoh kode

          try
          {
           _Application app;  // app is the Excel _Application object.
           _Workbook book;
           _Worksheet sheet;
           _Chart chart;
    
           Workbooks books;
           Worksheets sheets;
           Range range;
           ChartObjects chartobjects;
           Charts charts;
           LPDISPATCH lpDisp;
    
           // Common OLE variants. These are easy variants to use for
           // calling arguments.
           COleVariant
                      covTrue((short)TRUE),
                      covFalse((short)FALSE),
                      covOptional((long)DISP_E_PARAMNOTFOUND, VT_ERROR);
    
           // Start Excel and get the Application object.
           if(!app.CreateDispatch("Excel.Application"))
           {
            AfxMessageBox(
                 "Couldn't start Excel and get an application 0bject");
            return;
           }
    
           // Set visible.
           app.SetVisible(TRUE);
    
           // Get Workbooks collection.
           lpDisp = app.GetWorkbooks();  // Get an IDispatch pointer.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           books.AttachDispatch( lpDisp );  // Attach the IDispatch pointer
                                            // to the books object.
              // Open a workbook.
              lpDisp = books.Open("C:\\Test",
                          covOptional, covOptional, covOptional, covOptional,
                          covOptional, covOptional, covOptional, covOptional,
                          covOptional, covOptional, covOptional, covOptional,
                          covOptional, covOptional, covOptional); // Excel 2000 requires only 13 arguments
              ASSERT(lpDisp);  // It should have worked.
    
           // Attach to a Workbook object.
           book.AttachDispatch( lpDisp );  // Attach the IDispatch pointer
                                           // to the Workbook object.
    
           // Get sheets.
           lpDisp = book.GetSheets();
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           sheets.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
    
           lpDisp = sheets.GetItem( COleVariant((short)(1)) );
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
    
           // Attach the lpDisp pointer to a Worksheet object.
           sheet.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A1"), COleVariant("W40"));
                                   // The range is from A1 to W40.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);  // Attach the IDispatch pointer
                                          // to the range object.
           range.Clear();  // Could be ClearContents().
    
           ::Sleep(500); // So you can see it happen.
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A3"), COleVariant("A3"));
                                                     // From A3 to A3.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);  // Attach the IDispatch pointer
                                          // the range object.
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("March")); // Excel 97 & Excel 2000.
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("March")); // Insert March into range.
    
    
           // Following is a series of repetitive steps to populate the
           // worksheet's cells with a series of Months and values to be
           // used in the Chart object, which is yet to be constructed.
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B3"), COleVariant("B3"));
    
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("12")); // 97 & 2000
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("12")); //  Value for March.
    
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A4"), COleVariant("A4"));
                // Months will be in column A, values in column B.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("April"));// Excel 97 & Excel 2000
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("April")); // Excel 2002
    
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B4"), COleVariant("B4"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("8")); // Excel 97 & Excel 2000
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("8")); // Excel 2002
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A5"), COleVariant("A5"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("May"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("May"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B5"), COleVariant("B5"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("2"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("2"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A6"), COleVariant("A6"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("June"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("June"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B6"), COleVariant("B6"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("11"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("11"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A7"), COleVariant("A7"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("July"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("July"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B7"), COleVariant("B7"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("16"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("16"));
    
           // The cells are populated. To start the chart,
           // declare some long variables and site the chart.
           long left, top, width, height;
           left = 100;
           top = 10;
           width = 350;
           height = 250;
    
           lpDisp = sheet.ChartObjects(covOptional);
    
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           chartobjects.AttachDispatch(lpDisp); // Attach the lpDisp pointer
                                      // for ChartObjects to the chartobjects
                                      // object.
           ChartObject chartobject = chartobjects.Add(left, top, width, height); 
                                    //defines the rectangle, 
                                    // adds a new chart at that rectangle and 
                                    // assigns its object reference to a 
                                    // ChartObject variable named chartobject
           chart.AttachDispatch(chartobject.GetChart()); // GetChart() returns
                                             // LPDISPATCH, and this attaches 
                                             // it to your chart object.
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("A3"), COleVariant("B7"));
                             // The range containing the data to be charted.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
    
           VARIANT var; // ChartWizard needs a Variant for the Source range.
           var.vt = VT_DISPATCH; // .vt is the usable member of the tagVARIANT
                                 // Struct. Its value is a union of options.
           var.pdispVal = lpDisp; // Assign IDispatch pointer
                                  // of the Source range to var.
    
           chart.ChartWizard(var,                    // Source.
                            COleVariant((short)11),  // Gallery: 3d Column.
                            covOptional,             // Format, use default.
                            COleVariant((short)1),   // PlotBy: xlRows.
                            COleVariant((short)0),   // CategoryLabels.
                            COleVariant((short)1),   // SeriesLabels.
                            COleVariant((short)TRUE),  // HasLegend.
                            COleVariant("Use by Month"),  // Title.
                            COleVariant("Month"),    // CategoryTitle.
                            COleVariant("Usage in Thousands"),  // ValueTitles.
                            covOptional              // ExtraTitle.
                            );
           // The return is void.
           ::Sleep(3000);
           chartobject.Delete();  // Removes the first chartobject, sets the
           // ChartObjects.Item() count to 0. The next chart will restore the
           // item count to 1.
           ::Sleep(3000);  // Set the selected range to be erased.
           range.Clear();  // Erase the usage data.
    
           // Beginning of chart 2.
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B3"), COleVariant("B3"));
                                          // From B3 to B3.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);  // Attach the IDispatch pointer
                                          // to the range object.
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("Chocolate")); // Insert Chocolate into
                                                     // the range object.
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("Chocolate")); // Insert Chocolate
    
           // Following is a series of repetitive steps to populate the
           // worksheet's cells with a series of Flavors and values to be
           // used in the chart object, your second chart.
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B4"), COleVariant("B4"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("12")); // Value for Chocolate.
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("12")); // Value for Chocolate.
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("C3"), COleVariant("C3"));
                // Flavors will be in row 3, values in row 4.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("Vanilla"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("Vanilla"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("C4"), COleVariant("C4"));
    
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("8"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("8"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("D3"), COleVariant("D3"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("Orange"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("Orange"));
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("D4"), COleVariant("D4"));
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
           range.SetValue(COleVariant("6"));
    
    range.SetValue2(COleVariant("6"));
    
           // The cells are populated. To start the chart,
           // define the bounds, and site the chart.
    
           left = 250;
           top = 40;
           width = 300;
    
           height = 300;
    
           lpDisp = sheet.ChartObjects(covOptional);
    
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           chartobjects.AttachDispatch(lpDisp); // Attach the lpDisp pointer
                                       // for ChartObjects to the chartobjects
                                       // object.
           chartobjects.Add(left, top, width, height); // Adds 1 to item count.
    
           //**************************************
           lpDisp = chartobjects.Item( COleVariant((short)(1)) );  // It was
               // zero, but just added one at a new location,
               // with new left, top, width, and height.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           chartobject.AttachDispatch(lpDisp); // Use definition of new chart
                                               // site.
           chart.AttachDispatch(chartobject.GetChart());
           //**************************************
    
           lpDisp = sheet.GetRange(COleVariant("B3"), COleVariant("D4"));
                             // Range containing the data to be charted.
           ASSERT(lpDisp);
           range.AttachDispatch(lpDisp);
    
           var.pdispVal = lpDisp; // Contains IDispatch pointer
                                  // to the Source range.
    
           chart.ChartWizard(var,                    // Source.
                            COleVariant((short)11),  // Gallery = 3D Column.
                            covOptional,             // Format, use default.
                            COleVariant((short)2),   // PlotBy xlColumns.
                            COleVariant((short)0),   // CategoryLabels.
                            COleVariant((short)1),   // SeriesLabels.
                            COleVariant((short)TRUE),  // HasLegend.
                            COleVariant("Use by Flavor"),  // Title.
                            COleVariant("Flavor"),    // CategoryTitle.
                            COleVariant("Usage in Barrells"),  // ValueTitles.
                            covOptional              // ExtraTitle.
                            );
           // The return is void.
           ::Sleep(3000);
    
           //Show the chart in Print Preview.
           chart.PrintOut(COleVariant((short)1),     // From (page #).
                          COleVariant((short)1),     // To (page #).
                          COleVariant((short)1),     // Copies.
                          COleVariant((short)TRUE),  // Preview.
                          covOptional,               // ActivePrinter.
                          covFalse,                  // PrintToFile.
                          covFalse                   // Collate.
                          covOptional                // PrToFileName // 2002 only
                          );
    
           book.SetSaved(TRUE); // Avoids the 'Save changes?' dialog box.
           app.Quit(); // Excel departs.
    
           // By default, the pointer references for the objects
           // range, book, chart, chartobjects, sheet, and app
           // are automatically released when they go out of scope.
           // ReleaseDispatch()s are unnecessary.
    
           ::Sleep(1000);
           AfxMessageBox("Just executed App.Quit()");
    
          }  // End of processing logic.
    
          catch(COleException *e)
          {
            char buf[1024];
    
            sprintf(buf, "COleException. SCODE: %08lx.", (long)e->m_sc);
            ::MessageBox(NULL, buf, "COleException", MB_SETFOREGROUND | MB_OK);
          }
    
          catch(COleDispatchException *e)
          {
           char buf[1024];
           sprintf(buf,
                   "COleDispatchException. SCODE: %08lx, Description: \"%s\".",
                   (long)e->m_wCode,
                   (LPSTR)e->m_strDescription.GetBuffer(1024));
           ::MessageBox(NULL, buf, "COleDispatchException",
                        MB_SETFOREGROUND | MB_OK);
          }
    
          catch(...)
          {
           ::MessageBox(NULL, "General Exception caught.", "Catch-All",
                        MB_SETFOREGROUND | MB_OK);
          }
    					
  5. Anda mungkin perlu untuk memodifikasi kode di CAutoProjectDlg::OnRun() untuk menunjukkan jalan yang tepat untuk buku kerja Anda Test.xls. Buku kerja yang direkomendasikan pada baris berikut:
          lpDisp = books.open("C:\\Test", . . .);
    					

REFERENSI

Untuk informasi tambahan tentang aplikasi otomatisasi Office, klik nomor artikel di bawah ini untuk melihat artikel di dalam Basis Pengetahuan Microsoft:
222101 Bagaimana menemukan dan menggunakan dokumentasi Model obyek Office

Properti

ID Artikel: 178783 - Kajian Terakhir: 16 September 2011 - Revisi: 2.0
Berlaku bagi:
  • Microsoft Foundation Class Library 4.2, ketika digunakan dengan:
    • Microsoft Excel 97 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Office XP Developer Edition
  • Microsoft Office 2000 Developer Edition
  • Microsoft Excel 2002 Standard Edition
Kata kunci: 
kbautomation kbhowto kbinterop kbmt KB178783 KbMtid
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