Příručka Windows NT 4.0 profily a zásady (část 2 ze 6)

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Tento článek je druhý řadu článků poskytuje informace a postupy pro implementaci na klientské pracovní stanice a servery Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 profily a zásady.

Je k dispozici dokument obsahující všechny této informace a další vývojových diagramů, diagramy a příklady a lze stáhnout z následující webové stránky:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc750987.aspx
Dalších částech tohoto návodu naleznete v následujícím článku v Knowledge Base:
161334Příručka Windows NT 4.0 profily & zásady část 1 z 6
185588Příručka Windows NT 4.0 profily & zásady část 3 z 6
185589Příručka Windows NT 4.0 profily & zásady část 4 z 6
185591Příručka Windows NT 4.0 profily & zásady část 6 ze 6

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                   Windows NT Server Operating System
                             White Paper
         Guide to Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 Profiles and Policies

Copyright 1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of
Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of
publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions,
it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft,
and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented
after the date of publication.

This White Paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO
WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IN THIS DOCUMENT.

Microsoft, the BackOffice logo, MS-DOS, Windows, and Windows NT are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

Other product or company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of
their respective owners.

Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052-6399
USA
0997

HOW USER PROFILES ARE HANDLED IN WINDOWS 95
===========================================

When a user logs on to a Windows 95 machine, the local profile path,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Profile List,
is checked for an existing entry for that user.

If the user has an entry in this registry location, Windows 95 checks for a
locally cached version of the user's profile. Windows 95 also checks the
user's home directory (or other specified directory if the location has
been modified) on the server for the User Profile. If a profile exists in
both locations, the newer of the two is used. If the User Profile exists on
the server, but does not exist on the local machine, the profile on the
server is downloaded and used. If the User Profile only exists on the local
machine, that copy is used.

If a User Profile is not found in either location, the Default User Profile
from the Windows 95 machine is used and is copied to a newly created folder
for the logged on user. At log off, any changes that the user made are
written to the user's local profile. If the user has a roaming profile, the
changes are written to the user's profile on the server.

USER PROFILE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
========================================

A successful implementation of User Profiles requires planning and
preparation. Before creating User Profiles, consider the following:

 - How much of the user environment do you wish to control? Would System
   Policies-either in conjunction with User Profiles, or by themselves-be a
   better solution?

 - Will users be required to use a specific set of desktop folders and
   environment settings?

 - Will users be able to make modifications to their profiles?

 - What features will you be implementing in User Profiles? Optional
   features include persistent network connections, custom icons,
   backgrounds, and so on.

 - For roaming profiles, will users be allowed to use the default profile
   from the client workstation or will a standardized server-based default
   profile be used instead?

 - Where will the profiles be stored, and is there enough drive space to
   store them?

 - Where do existing user home directories reside?

 - How will shortcuts and links be displayed for the user?

 - What are the speeds of the links between the clients and the server
   storing the profiles?

These issues are examined more fully in the following paragraphs. For more
information, refer to the Windows NT Server Concepts and Planning Guide.

SETTING PERMISSIONS FOR USER PROFILES
=====================================

When troubleshooting or preparing for a rollout of User Profiles, you
should pay careful attention to permissions at the Windows NT File System
(NTFS) and share levels. If the profile is mandatory, the user account
should have at least Read permissions on the network share where that
user's User Profile is stored. If the user's profile is roaming, the user
must have Change permissions (or better) because the client will need to
write the changes back to the central profile on the shared network drive
when the user logs off. If roaming profiles are stored on an NTFS
partition, you can choose to remove the Delete permission from the default
Change permissions at the NTFS level.

NOTE: Directories containing roaming User Profiles need at least Add and
Read permissions for profiles to be read correctly. If you use Add
permissions only, when Windows NT checks for the existence of the profile
it will fail because it looks for the path first, and if Read rights are
not given, the check will fail.

Permissions are also important on a client machine where the user is
logging on interactively. If Windows NT is installed in an NTFS partition
on the client computer, and the user does not have at least the default
permissions as outlined in the Windows NT Server Concepts and Planning
Guide (page 132), errors can occur. For example, if permissions are
incorrect on the root of the system directory, the following message
appears: "Can't access this folder-the path is too long." A blank desktop
is displayed, and the user's only option is to log off.

If permissions are set incorrectly in the %systemroot%,
%systemroot%\System, %systemroot%\System32, or %systemroot%\System32\Config
directories, the following message appears: "Unable to log you on because
your profile could not be loaded."

ENCODING PERMISSIONS IN THE USER PROFILE
========================================

The registry portion of the User Profile, Ntuser.xxx, is encoded with the
user or group that has permission to use that profile. Once this is saved,
you can use the Registry Editor to modify this information if you want to
change the permissions on a profile without replacing it.
To change encoded User Profile information:

1. Follow the instructions to manually edit a profile: (Refer to the
   section "Administering a User Profile Manually through the Registry"
   later in this document).

2. Change the permissions on the root of the key to include users and
   groups who will have permission to use the profile.

3. Unload the hive.

SELECTING A LOCATION TO SAVE USER PROFILES
==========================================

As with Windows NT 3.5x, you can place a roaming profile in any shared
directory, and then configure the user account profile path to point to the
profile. The Profiles directory in the system root stores local User
Profiles, "All Users" profile settings (which apply to any user who uses
the computer), the "Default User" profile, and cached User Profiles of
domain users. You should avoid using the %systemroot%\Profiles directory in
the domain users' profile path as a location to store server-based
profiles, whether they are roaming or mandatory. (The path should allow the
user's profile to roam with the user and be available on any networked
computer that the user logs on to. If you specify a path to the
%systemroot%\Profiles directory, the client computer always uses the local
profile instead.)

Windows NT 4.0 profiles can be saved on any Windows NT 3.5x or 4.0 server
because the client computer uses the path where the profile is stored only
as a location to download the profile and to write the modified user
profile at log off. This allows profiles to be stored on any shared network
drive. The process of downloading the profile is controlled by the client
computer-all the client needs is the correct path. Note that storing
profiles on a Windows NT 4.0 Server makes it easier for the administrator
to open a user's Ntuser.dat file to make any necessary modifications. You
can also store User Profiles on Novell Servers provided that the client is
configured correctly and can access the profile path.

If a client is not receiving a User Profile at logon, use the Start menu
Run command to check the profile path. For example, to see if you can
locate the profile, type \\server\share\mydomainuser. If the path to the
user's profile contains spaces, put quotation marks around the path when
you type it in the Run command box.

Except in the case of mandatory profiles or when a slow network is
detected, any changes to the user's profile are saved to the central
profile when the user logs off. (Because users cannot modify mandatory
profiles, changes do not need to be written to the server.)

NOTE: In situations where the same user account logs on to multiple
machines, the last user to log off dictates the profile settings because
that user was the last one to write data to the profile. Similarly, if a
group of users all point to the same profile, the final logoff settings are
saved and will overwrite previous settings.

If the User Profile is flagged as a local profile and is not mandatory, any
changes the user makes while logged on are written to the locally cached
version of the profile, but not to the server-based copy.

NOTE: You should not make the home directory and User Profile path the
same. If the profile path encompasses the home directory path and the
server-based profile is more recent than the local profile on the
workstation, all directories and files that exist in the user's home
directory will be copied to the user's workstation at logon. These files
are then written back to the server (if modified) when the user logs off.
This process occurs at each logon. In addition, even if the user logs off
and the administrator deletes all of the unnecessary files from the home
directory, the versions of these files that reside on the workstation will
not be deleted at logon and will be written back to the server again at log
off. This file copy process is avoided if you place the profile in a
subdirectory of the home directory, as follows:
\\server\share\domainuser\profile.

SETTING PERSISTENT CONNECTIONS
==============================

Persistent connections are stored in the User Profiles registry hive under
the Network subkey. If you create a template User Profile that includes
persistent connections and you have to supply credentials when making those
connections, the credentials-with the exception of the password you used-
are stored in the User Profile. When the new user receives the template
User Profile, these saved credentials are passed (as opposed to the logged
on user's credentials), and the connection may fail.

There are three methods to correct this:

1. You can recreate the profile without supplying alternate credentials
   when connecting to network resources, or

2. Using Registry Editor (Regedt32.exe), use blank spaces to erase the
   contents of the USERNAME value under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Network\drive
   letter. (Do not delete the value-just fill it with blank spaces.) Save
   the profile. For additional help, refer to the section "Administering a
   User Profile Manually Through the Registry" later in this document, or

3. Delete the network connection and reconnect.

WORKING AROUND SLOW NETWORK LINKS
=================================

Slow Net (which is configured in System Policy) was designed to offer a
user faster access to his or her User Profile if the system detects a
slower network speed, such as a modem line connection. Instead of
automatically downloading a profile that may be several hundred kilobytes
to several megabytes large, Slow Net gives the user the option of either
downloading the profile or using the locally cached version. If the cached
file is used, it can significantly reduce the time it takes to log on to
the computer. To detect a slow network, the operating system computes the
amount of time it takes to receive a response from the server (which the
profile path defines as part of the user account). As system administrator,
you can determine the allowable slow network speed. Use the System Policy
Editor to set this value.

If the user uses the Control Panel System application to change the profile
type to Local, then the cached copy of the User Profile is opened every
time the user logs on. Any changes that occur to the profile are written
locally and not to the server location.

CREATING AND MAINTAINING USER PROFILES
======================================

Creating a New Roaming User Profile for Windows NT 4.0
------------------------------------------------------

To create a new roaming User Profile, you must first determine where the
user's profile will be stored. You then must create a user account (if one
doesn't already exist), and specify a User Profile path. Finally, you must
specify whether a given user will use a specific profile or can use a
default profile. These procedures are described below.

To create a new roaming user profile:

1. If a location has not already been prepared, create a directory on the
   server and establish a network share. Give the user a minimum of Change
   permissions to the shared directory. (For more information on planning
   for this type of user, read the sections "Selecting a Location to Save
   User Profiles" and "Setting Permissions for User Profiles" earlier in
   this document.) If your implementation stores user profiles within
   users' home directories, make the profile directory a subdirectory of
   the user's home directory. (Note that this approach precludes the use of
   the %USERNAME% variable.) To prevent the share from being browsable,
   append "$" to the share name.

2. If this will be a domain user or if this will be a local account for a
   Windows NT Server-based machine, use User Manager for Domains to create
   the account. If this will be a Windows NT 4.0 Workstation account, use
   the version of User Manager included in the Administrative Tools program
   group. Refer to your operating system documentation and online Help for
   procedures when using these tools. (Note that for this example, the user
   account is mydomainuser.)

3. Enter the User Profile path. This is the location where the User Profile
   will be stored, for example: \\myserver\myshare\mydomainuser. Or, if the
   profile is being stored within the user's home directory, use:
   \\myserver\myshare\MyUsersHomeDir\profile.

4. If the user is to receive the Default User profile from the workstation
   where he or she will interactively log on, no further administration is
   required.

   If the user's profile will be a copy of an existing user profile, refer
   to Step 9. Otherwise, use User Manager to create an account for
   establishing a template profile. So that you can easily identify this
   account, we recommend that it be called TemplateUser.

5. Using the template account (TemplateUser), log on to the local machine
   or domain. A new directory with the same name as the user name created
   in Step 4 will be created in the %systemroot%\Profiles directory when
   you first log on. For example, if the user name is TemplateUser, the
   resulting directory name will be %systemroot%\Profiles\TemplateUser.

6. Modify any items that need to differ from the current default (for
   example, you may choose to modify the background color or bitmap,
   shortcuts on the desktop, and View options in My Computer).

7. Log off, and then log back on to the same computer using an account with
   administrative privileges.

8. Place the template profile in the appropriate location for the type of
   profile distribution that will be used. (The template profile, including
   customizations, is stored initially in
   %systemroot%\Profiles\TemplateUser.)

    - If the template profile will be distributed manually to multiple
      users:

      a. Create a directory where the template profile will be stored for
         distribution to each user account created.

      b. From the Windows NT-based machine hosting the template profile to
         be used, log on as an administrator.

      c. From the Control Panel, click System. From the User Profiles page,
         use the Copy To option to enter the path of the directory you just
         created.

      d. Modify the permissions to allow the Everyone group to use the
         profile. To do this, click the Change button, select the group,
         and click OK.

      e. Continue to Step 9.

    - If the template profile will be distributed via the Default User
      folder on validating servers:

      a. Create a Default User directory in the NETLOGON share (which is
         %systemroot%\Repl\Import\Scripts by default) of validating domain
         controllers. This folder name must be named Default User or the
         profile will not be downloaded from the server. To keep the
         Default User profile consistent across domain controllers and to
         ease administrative overhead, you can create this folder on one
         computer and then use the directory replication service to export
         it to all validating domain controllers.

      b. If a user logs on and does not have an existing local or server-
         based profile and your implementation uses the Default User folder
         on validating domain controllers, Windows NT will check the
         NETLOGON share for the Default User profile before it uses the
         local default profile. (Workstations save the server Default User
         profile on a local cache.) Windows NT will check the
         time/date/size of the server copy against the locally cached copy
         before downloading the server copy. And, if the files are
         identical, Windows NT will use the local copy of the server
         Default User profile.

      c. Continue to Step 10.

9. In the \\server\share from Step 1, create the directory structure you
   specified as the path in Step 3. For example, create the directory
   mydomainuser under \\myserver\myshare. If the profile is to be stored
   within the user's home directory, use the directory structure
   \mydomainuser\profile under \\myserver\myshare.

10. Copy the profile appropriate to your implementation.

     - To copy an existing user's profile to another user:

       a. From the Windows NT-based machine hosting the profile to be used,
          log on as an administrator.

       b. From the Control Panel, click System. On the User Profiles page,
          select the profile to be copied and use the Copy To option to
          enter the path of the directory you created in Step 9.

       c. Modify the permissions to reflect the proper account. To do this,
          click the Change button, select the account, and click OK. Click
          OK again to copy the profile.

     - To copy the template profile to the Default User folder on
       validating domain controllers:

       a. From the Windows NT-based machine hosting the profile to be used,
          log on as an administrator.

       b. From the Control Panel, click System. On the User Profiles page,
          select the profile to be copied and use the Copy To option to
          enter the path of the Default User directory on the validating
          domain controller.

       c. Modify the permissions to reflect the Everyone group. To do this,
          click the Change button, select the account, and click OK. Click
          OK again to copy the profile.

     - To copy a template profile manually to a number of users:

       a. Copy the entire contents (files and subdirectories) from the
          directory containing the template user profile created in Step 8
          to the directory created in Step 9.

       b. Repeat this for each of the user profile directories that will
          receive the template user profile.

NOTES:
 - When entering the path to the target directory, you can use Uniform
   Naming Convention (UNC) names. However, if you are going to use the
   Browse function to locate the target directory for the profile, it is
   important that you first map a drive to the \\server\share where the
   profile will be stored.
 - The mydomainuser name shown in Step 2 does not have to be the user's
   name. Many user accounts or groups can be configured to point to the
   same profile. Of course, if the profile is shared by a group of users
   and is not mandatory, as each user logs off, the user's changes are
   written back to the shared profile.
 - The profile does not need to be stored one directory below the
   server\share. The profile can be nested several directories below, or
   the profile path can be local.
 - If the profile path points to a directory on the local machine, a share
   is not needed.
 - The variable %USERNAME% is replaced by the user name only once in the
   User Profile path in User Manager, and it must be the last subdirectory
   in the path. However, extensions can still be added, such as .usr or
   .man.
 - You can select any group or a specific user when setting the
   permissions. However, only the user or group specified will be able to
   use the profile. For this reason, it is recommended that the Everyone
   group be given permission to use template profiles.

Once the above steps are completed, the user receives the appropriate
profile as follows:

 - If the user is to receive the Default User profile from a Windows NT
   4.0-based workstation, the workstation's default profile is used when
   the user first logs on. When the user logs off, the profile is
   automatically written to the local cache and to the server-based
   profile.

 - If the user is to receive the Default User profile from the validating
   domain controller, the default profile from the server is used when the
   user first logs on. When the user logs off, this profile is
   automatically written to the local cache and to the server-based
   profile.

 - In all other cases, the profile-including the folder trees and the
   Ntuser.xxx file originally included with the profile-is written to the
   user's profile directory. The permissions are also encoded into the
   binary Ntuser.xxx file.

Creating a New Mandatory User Profile for Windows NT 4.0
--------------------------------------------------------

To create a new mandatory User Profile:

1. If a location has not already been prepared, create a directory on the
   server and establish a network share. Users who will have mandatory
   profiles need only Read permissions to the shared directory. (For more
   information on planning for this type of user, read the sections
   "Selecting a Location to Save User Profiles" and "Setting Permissions
   for User Profiles" earlier in this document.) If your implementation
   stores user profiles within users' home directories, make the profile
   directory a subdirectory of the user's home directory. (Note that this
   approach precludes the use of the %USERNAME% variable.) To prevent the
   share from being browsable, append "$" to the share name.

2. If this will be a domain user or if this will be a local account for a
   Windows NT Server, use User Manager for Domains to create the account.
   If this will be a Windows NT 4.0 Workstation account, use the version of
   User Manager included in the Administrative Tools program group. Refer
   to your operating system documentation and online Help for procedures
   when using these tools. (Note that for this example, the user account is
   mydomainuser.)

3. Enter the User Profile path. This is the location where the User Profile
   will be stored, for example: \\myserver\myshare\mydomainuser. Or, if the
   profile is being stored within the user's home directory, use:
   \\myserver\myshare\MyUsersHomeDir\profile.

4. Determine if an extension needs to be appended to the User Profile path.
   If it will be mandatory that the user reads the profile from the server,
   and if logon will be denied unless this is the case, add the extension
   .man to the User Profile path; for example:
   \\myserver\myshare\mydomainuser.man.

5. Use User Manager to create an account for establishing the template
   profile. So that you can easily identify this account, we recommend that
   it be called TemplateUser.

6. Using the template account (TemplateUser), log on to the local machine
   or domain. A new directory with the same name as the user name created
   in Step 2 will be created in the %systemroot%\Profiles directory when
   you first log on. For example, if the user name is TemplateUser, the
   resulting directory name will be %systemroot%\Profiles\TemplateUser.

7. Modify any items that need to differ from the current default (for
   example, you may choose to modify the background color or bitmap,
   shortcuts on the desktop, and View options in My Computer).

8. Log off, and then log back on to the same computer using an account with
   administrative privileges.

9. In the \\server\share from Step 1, create the directory structure you
   specified as the path in Step 3. For example, you would need to create
   the directory mydomainuser under \\myserver\myshare. Or, if the profile
   is stored in the user's home directory, you would need to create the
   directory structure \mydomainuser\profile under \\myserver\myshare.

   If you appended the .man extension to the User Profile path in Step 4,
   append the .man suffix to the directory name for the folder where the
   profile will be stored. The .man extension identifies a Windows NT 4.0
   mandatory profile that must be accessible for the user to logon. For
   example, if the user name is mydomainuser, the path to the mandatory
   profile would be \\myserver\myshare\mydomainuser.man.

   If you also have a mandatory Windows NT 3.5x profile for the user, use
   the .pdm extension in place of the .man extension (for example,
   \\myserver\myshare\mydomainuser.pdm). The .pdm extension is required
   because the profile folder cannot have the same name as the Windows NT
   3.5x User Profile located in the same parent folder.

10. From the Windows NT-based machine hosting the template profile to be
    used, log on as an administrator.

11. From the Control Panel, click System. From the User Profiles page,
    select the profile to be copied and use the Copy To option to enter the
    path of the directory you created in Step 9.

12. Modify the permissions to allow the user or group to use the profile.
    To do this, click the Change button, select the account, and click OK.
    You can select any group or specific user when setting the permissions;
    however only the user or group specified will be able to use the
    profile.

    The profile-including the folder trees and the Ntuser.xxx file
    originally included with the profile-is written to the location you
    designated. The permissions are also encoded into the binary Ntuser.xxx
    file.

13. In the directory that the profile was copied to in Step 3, check the
    Ntuser.xxx file for the .man extension. If the extension is .dat, the
    profile will still be modifiable. Change the extension to .man if
    necessary.

NOTES:
 - When entering the path to the target directory, you can use universal
   naming convention (UNC) names. However, if you are going to use the
   Browse function to locate the target directory for the profile, it is
   important that you first map a drive to the \\server\share where the
   profile will be stored.
 - The mydomainuser name shown in Step 2 does not have to be the user's
   name. Many user accounts or groups can be configured to point to the
   same profile. Because this is a mandatory profile, this may be the
   desired use of the profile since the administrator wants all the users
   in the group to receive the same settings.
 - The profile does not need to be stored one directory below the
   \\server\share. The profile can be nested several directories below, or
   the profile path can be local.
 - If the profile path points to a directory on the local machine, a share
   is not needed.
 - The variable %USERNAME% is replaced by the user name only once in the
   User Profile path, in User Manager, and it must be the last subdirectory
   in the path. However, extensions can still be added, such as .usr or
   .man.
 - The %LOGONSERVER% variable can be used for mandatory profiles to provide
   fault tolerance. Do not place double slashes ( \\) in front of
   %LOGONSERVER%; doing so will prevent the variable from being read
   properly. See Microsoft Knowledge Base article Q141714 for more
   information.
 - You can use the TemplateUser account to test changes before making them
   available to users by copying the adjusted profile directory to test
   accounts prior to rollout.
 - You can select any group or a specific user when setting the
   permissions. However, only the user or group specified will be able to
   use the profile. For this reason, it is recommended that the Everyone
   group be given permission to use template profiles.

Making a Roaming Profile Mandatory in Windows NT 4.0
----------------------------------------------------

You have two options when configuring a mandatory roaming profile: you can
change the user's ability to modify the User Profile, or you can change the
user's ability to modify the User Profile and enforce the use of the server-
based profile at logon. With the second option, the user is not able to log
on to the system if the network profile is unavailable. Each of these
procedures will be explained more fully below.

Changing the User's Ability to Modify a Profile
-----------------------------------------------

When creating a User Profile or at any time thereafter, you have the option
of enforcing whether or not the user can modify the profile by changing the
extension on the Ntuser.dat file. The Ntuser.dat file is located in the
root of the user's profile directory. If you change the name of this file
to Ntuser.man, when Windows NT reads the profile, it marks the profile as
read-only, and any changes that the user makes while logged on are not
written back to the server-based profile when he or she logs off.

To change the user's ability to make modifications to the User Profile:

1. Locate the user's profile in the account's User Profile path.

2. While the user is logged off, rename the Ntuser.dat file to Ntuser.man.
   (Note that if you make this change while the user is logged on, the
   user's copy of the profile will overwrite your changes, because at the
   time the user logged on, he or she had permission to overwrite the
   profile.)

Be cautious if you use the Windows NT Explorer interface to make these
changes. If you have the "Hide file extensions for known file types" option
enabled (this is the default), be sure to check the properties to be sure
that there are not two extensions. For example, say you want to make a
profile mandatory and you use Explorer to rename the Ntuser.dat file name
to Ntuser.man. Because of the Hide extensions default, Explorer saves the
file as type .man, but does not display the .man extension. Later, you
decide to allow the user to make changes again, and through Explorer, you
rename the file back to Ntuser.dat. However, because Explorer was hiding
that part of the file name that determines its type, the only thing you

rename is the prefix. The file name is now Ntuser.dat.man. To avoid this
situation, you can either rename files from the command line or change the
behavior of Explorer.

Enforcing the Use of the Server-based Profile
---------------------------------------------

In addition to enforcing the read-only property of a profile, the
administrator can duplicate the functionality that was available in Windows
NT 3.5x of not allowing the user to log on unless the server profile is
available.

To enforce the use of the server-based profile for a given user:

1. Append the .man extension to the User Profile path in User Manager as
   explained in the previous section. (Skip this step for users who have
   existing Windows NT 3.5x profiles and who already have the .man
   extension appended to their profile paths.)

2. If the user already has a Windows NT 3.5x mandatory profile on the
   server, change the name of the folder where the Windows NT 4.0 roaming
   profile currently exists to foldername.pdm. If the user logs on to a
   Windows NT 4.0-based workstation and the User Profile path contains the
   .man extension, Windows NT will determine that a mandatory Windows NT
   3.5x profile exists and will automatically replace the .man extension
   with .pdm and will look for the directory path configured in the User
   Profile path. For example, at logon if the User Profile path is
   configured to use \\server\share\username.man, Windows NT will look for
   \\server\share\username.pdm for the correct profile to load.

   If only the Windows NT 4.0 user profile exists, change the name of the
   folder where the Windows NT 4.0 roaming profile exists to
   foldername.man. If the user logs on to a Windows NT 4.0-based
   workstation and the User Profile path contains the extension .man,
   Windows NT will look for the directory path configured in the User
   Profile path. If Windows NT does not find the directory, it will replace
   the .man extension with .pdm, and will check again.

3. If you haven't already done so, change the name of the Ntuser.xxx file
   to Ntuser.dat. (Refer to the section, "Changing the User's Ability to
   Modify a Profile, " in this document.)

Creating a New Roaming User Profile for a Windows 95 User
---------------------------------------------------------

If you have Windows 95 users in your domain, you can create roaming user
profiles for them as well.

To create a roaming user profile for a Windows 95 user:

1. On the client Windows 95-based computer, start Control Panel, and select
   Passwords.

2. From the User Profiles property page, enable the option that allows
   users to have individual profiles, and set the Primary Network Logon to
   Client for Microsoft Networks.

3. Reboot the client machine.

4. Use User Manager for Domains to create the user account (if it does not
   already exist). For the user's home directory, specify the location
   where the User Profile will be stored. An example would be:  <image
   present in whitepaper>

   This automatically creates a folder with the user name. If a dialog box
   is displayed stating that the operation failed, create the folder
   manually before continuing.

5. Decide whether the user will receive a specific profile or if a default
   will be used instead:

    - If the user will receive a specific profile, from the Windows 95-
      based computer hosting the profile to be used, copy the complete
      contents of the local Profile folder to the folder created in Step 4.
      This writes the profile to the destination, including the folder
      trees and the User.xxx file originally included with the profile.

    - If a default profile will be used, no administrative action is
      required. When the user logs on, the Default User Profile from the
      local Windows 95-based machine will be used. At log off, this profile
      will be written to the user's home directory with any customizations
      the user has made.

NOTES:
 - If you need to troubleshoot problems with users not receiving their User
   Profiles, have the users execute the command: NET USE * /HOME from the
   command prompt on the client machine. This verifies that the user can
   access the home directory, and allows the user to verify that the User
   Profile exists in that folder.
 - The profile does not need to be stored one directory below the
   \\server\share. The profile can be nested several directories below, if
   desired.

Creating a New Mandatory User Profile for Windows 95
----------------------------------------------------

If you have Windows 95 users in your domain, you can create new mandatory
user profiles.

To create a mandatory user profile for a Windows 95 user:

1. On the client Windows 95-based computer, start Control Panel, and select
   Passwords.

2. From the User Profiles property page, enable the option that allows
   users to have individual profiles, and set the Primary Network Logon to
   Client for Microsoft Networks.

3. Reboot the client machine.

4. Use User Manager for Domains to create the user account (if it does not
   already exist). For the user's home directory, specify the location
   where the User Profile will be stored. An example would be:  <image
   present in whitepaper>

   This automatically creates a folder with the user name. If a dialog is
   displayed stating that the operation failed, create the folder manually
   before continuing.

5. Copy the Template Profile that you are using for mandatory profiles to
   the user's home directory:

    - From the Windows 95-based machine hosting the mandatory, copy the
      complete contents of the local Profile folder to the folder created
      previously. This writes the profile to the destination, including the
      folder trees and the User.xxx file originally included with the
      profile.

    - If you have not already done so, rename the User.dat file to
      User.man.

At logon, the user will download the mandatory profile, cache it, and no
changes will be written back to the server at log off.

NOTES:
 - The profile does not need to be stored one directory below the
   \\server\share. The profile can be nested several directories below, if
   desired.
 - Alternatively, a new profile can be made mandatory by the user logging
   on, logging off, and the administrator changing the User.dat file to
   User.man.

Maintaining User Profiles with Control Panel System Properties
--------------------------------------------------------------

In Windows NT 4.0, much of the functionality provided by individual tools
in Windows NT 3.5x has been consolidated in the Control Panel System
Properties application. And System Properties, when used in conjunction
with the System Policy Editor, provides even greater functionality than
Windows NT 3.5x delivered. Some of the features of System Properties are
described next.

NOTE: In Windows NT 3.5x, you used the User Profile Editor to modify User
Profile properties. In Windows NT 4.0, this tool has been replaced by a
combination of the User Profile structure and System Policies. User Profile
Editor is not included in the Windows NT 4.0 package.

The User Profiles property sheet (shown in the figure below) allows you to
view the list of User Profiles. From there you can delete, copy, or modify
the profile type for each of the profiles listed. Note that the profiles
listed are only for those users who have interactively logged onto the
local machine. User profiles that have been created and not used or
profiles that are stored for use on remote machines are not included in
this list. Furthermore, if a user does not have administrative rights, only
that user's profile is listed. Administrators have permissions to see all
available profiles.

Deleting Profiles
-----------------

The User Profiles property sheet allows users with administrator privileges
to delete unused profiles that still exist on a local computer. (In Windows
NT 3.5x, this function was available in the Main group of the Windows NT
Setup program.) To delete a User Profile, select the profile name and click
the Delete button. This deletes the User Profile on the local machine, but
it does not delete the associated User Account. Note that sometimes the
phrase "Account Deleted" is present in the list of profiles. These are
accounts that were deleted from the User Account Database, but whose
profiles still exist on the local computer.

If you need to delete profiles on remote computers, the Delprof.exe utility
available in the Windows NT Server Resource Kit, version 4.0, provides this
functionality. Windows NT 4.0 User Profiles can grow quite large and can
take up considerable disk space, particularly if several people are using
one computer. With Delprof.exe, you can reclaim disk space by removing
profiles that are no longer needed. This utility deletes User Profiles on
computers running Windows NT, and it can be used on a local or remote
computer running Windows NT 4.0 or earlier. However, because Delprof.exe is
Unicode-based, it cannot run on Windows 95.

NOTE: Delprof.exe will delete everything contained in a user's profile,
including settings, colors, and user documents. Please be aware of any user
documents that may be deleted before using this tool.

The syntax of Delprof.exe is as follows:

   delprof [/q] [/i] [/p] [/c:\\computername] [/d:days] [/?]

Where:
   /q  Runs Delprof.exe in quiet mode, with no confirmation for each
       profile to be deleted.
   /I  Indicates that Delprof.exe should ignore errors and continue
       deleting.
   /p  Prompts for confirmation before deleting each profile.
   /c:\\computername  Specifies a remote computer name on which to run
       Delprof.exe.
   /d:days  Specifies the number of days of inactivity (days is an
       integer). Profiles with longer inactivity will be deleted.
   /?  Displays command-line syntax.

See the Windows NT Server Resource Kit for more information.

It is important to note that if a user is logged on locally to a machine
and then attempts to delete his or her own profile, a message will appear
stating that the profile is currently in use and cannot be deleted. The
user must log off, log back on using a different account with administrator
privileges, and delete the profile. In addition, if a service is running
for a particular user account, the same message may appear. If this
happens, stop the service and then delete the profile.

Changing the Profile Type from Roaming to Local
-----------------------------------------------

With the User Profiles Change Type feature, a user can control which copy
of the User Profile (local or roaming) is read when he or she logs on.
(Note that the user can do this interactively while logged on.) Users do
not need administrative privileges to change which profile is used if the
profile is not a mandatory profile.

Valid profile types are:

 - Local Profile-A local profile is maintained on the local computer. This
   option allows the user to specify that the once "roaming" profile is now
   "local" to this machine. Although the remote profile is still available,
   if the Local Profile option is selected, the locally cached profile will
   be used instead. The user should be aware that if he or she makes
   changes to the profile, those changes will be saved in the locally
   cached version only and will not be replicated in the server-based
   profile. Note that the system can choose this selection automatically if
   the server-based profile is unavailable.

 - Roaming Profile-If the user selects the roaming profile and the roaming
   profile is available, Windows NT determines whether the server or local
   copy is newer. If the local copy is newer, the user is asked to choose
   which copy he or she would like to use. Note that if the system detects
   a slow network link, the user will be given this same choice of
   profiles. The Roaming Profile selection is available if:

   1. There is a valid path specified in the User Profile path portion of
      the user account properties, and

   2. The User Profile path is accessible at the time of logon.

 - Roaming Profile with "Use cached profile on slow connections"-If a user
   selects this option, he or she is not asked which copy to use with a
   slow connection. Instead, the system uses the locally cached copy
   automatically.

If a user has a roaming profile, it is possible for that user to change the
mode to Local and have Windows NT use the local version always, even though
the roaming profile is still available. However, a user cannot do this if
the system administrator assigns that user a mandatory profile and has
added the .man extension to the user's profile path.

Determining Which Profile Is Displayed
--------------------------------------

There may be cases where users who have identical names but are from
different domains will log on to the same machine. If this occurs, you will
notice several directories that start with the same prefix in the
%systemroot%\Profiles directory tree. You can use the User Profiles
property page to determine which file is associated with which user, as
follows:

1. Compare the Modified and Size properties to those of the actual
   directories. The Size property displayed in User Profiles is the total
   size of the directory residing in the profiles tree, not the size of the
   Ntuser.xxx file alone. Match the directory sizes in the profiles tree to
   the number displayed on the User Profiles property page.

2. If the user is currently logged on, right-click the Start button. If
   context menus have not been disabled, select the option to Explore and
   Explorer will open to the profile directory used by that account.

3. If you don't know when the user last logged on, look for the Ntuser.dat
   file with a time and date stamp that matches the Modified date displayed
   in the User Profiles property page.

Copying Profiles
----------------

Use the User Profiles Copy To button to copy existing profiles from the
local machine to another profile directory on the same machine or to a
remote server where server-based User Profiles are stored. The Copy To
dialog box (see the figure below) performs two functions. First, the Copy
profile to option provides a Browse button that enables you to view local
and remote drives to select the directory where the profile should be
copied. In addition, the dialog provides a Permitted to Use option that
allows you to select the user account or group that has permission to use
the profile.

When the permissions are written to the profile, they are stored in the
Ntuser.xxx file. When a new profile is created, the user that created the
profile is given permission to use that profile. However, those with
administrator permissions can use the Change button or the Registry Editor
to change these permissions.

When you click the Browse button, the following dialog box appears (image
present in whitepaper). It is important to note that this dialog does not
allow you to create directories. You must create the required directories
before you copy the profile.

Viewing the Contents of the Profiles Directory on a Local Computer
------------------------------------------------------------------

All locally cached versions of User Profiles are stored in the profiles
subdirectory of the Windows NT root directory. The profiles subdirectory
maintains each user's profile separately by generating a specific directory
for each user. Within that directory, the registry hive, Ntuser.dat, and
the rest of the profile structure folders are kept. If a user is allowed to
view context menus or has administrator privileges, the user can right-
click the Start button, click the Explore option, and have the Explorer
window automatically open to his or her profile directory with the contents
displayed. In addition, administrators can click the Explore All Users
option to display the All Users profile directory.

You may notice that in a given user's profile directory, there are more
files and directories than those listed in the example above. This may be
due to the files and directories created by the user. For example, when the
user logs on, if the server-based profile is found to be more recent than
the one on the local computer, the entire contents of the User Profile path
is copied to the client workstation and is then written back to the server
when the user logs off. If the user has saved any documents in the home
directory and the home directory is in the user's User Profile path, the
documents become part of the User Profile. These documents are downloaded
when you log on to the network and written back to the server when you log
off the network. Note that this process could slow down the logon process
considerably.

Log Files Used by Profiles
--------------------------

Log files are binary files that track changes to a profile. As changes are
made, they are recorded in a log file and then written to NTuser.xxx. If
for some reason, the changes cannot be recorded in NTuser.xxx, they are
applied at the next logon. When a user makes a change to his or her
profile, the change is made to the user's locally cached profile, even if a
mandatory profile is in use. (In this case, the changes are not propagated
to the server copy and are overwritten the next time the user logs on.) If
the user has a roaming User Profile, when the user logs off, the NTuser.dat
file is copied to the server and the changes are saved (unless the profile
is being used in a local mode).

The All Users Shared Profile
----------------------------

The All Users profile directory contains common groups that apply to all
users logging on locally to a given workstation. When a user logs on,
programs and shortcuts from the All Users profile are also available to the
user-in addition to the user's personal User Profile programs and
shortcuts. Note that the All Users profile on a domain controller does not
apply to domain users logging on at remote workstations. The All Users
profile is workstation-specific and contains the common groups for just
that computer. If you want to specify programs, shortcuts, or directories
to be used by everyone who logs on to a specific workstation, you should
place these in the All Users profile directory.

If you need to establish domain-wide common groups and settings, use the
System Policy Editor to modify registry entries on remote workstations so
that they point to server directories for common groups, as opposed to
pointing to the local All Users profile. Later, if you need to remove the
domain-wide settings and have remote users point to the All Users profile
from the local workstations once again, you'll need to change the default
path used in the System Policy Editor to:

   %systemroot%\Profiles\All Users\Start Menu\Programs

Refer to the System Policy portion of this guide for specific procedures.
				

Vlastnosti

ID článku: 185587 - Poslední aktualizace: 4. února 2014 - Revize: 3.2
Informace v tomto článku jsou určeny pro produkt:
  • Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Developer Edition
  • Microsoft Windows 95
Klíčová slova: 
kbnosurvey kbarchive kbmt kbinfo KB185587 KbMtcs
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