Terminal Server Performance Monitor Objects and Counters

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Summary

A number of Performance Monitor objects and counters have been added to Terminal Server. This article describes all the new objects and counters and what they mean.

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OBJECT: Process (Existing Object)

ID Logon: Citrix-supplied process SessionID represents a unique logon occurrence because a given account may have multiple logon instances simultaneously. All processes related to a specific logon occurrence have the same SessionID.

ID USER: Process owners Security ID. This information relates the process to a specific account in the system's security database. An account may have multiple occurrences (SessionIDs) active on the system at a time.

OBJECT: Session (New Object)

The instances available for the object counters are the currently running sessions on the Terminal Server computer (both active and disconnected).

% Privileged Time: Privileged Time is the percentage of elapsed time that this process's threads have spent executing code in privileged mode. When a Windows NT system service is called, the service will often run in privileged mode to gain access to system-private data. Such data is protected from access by threads executing in user mode. Calls to the system may be explicit, or they may be implicit such as when a page fault or an interrupt occurs. Unlike some early operating systems, Windows NT uses process boundaries for subsystem protection in addition to the traditional protection of user and privileged modes. These subsystem processes provide additional protection. Therefore, some work done by Windows NT on behalf of your application may appear in other subsystem processes in addition to the Privileged Time in your process.

% Processor Time: Processor Time is the percentage of elapsed time that all of the threads of this process used the processor to execute instructions. An instruction is the basic unit of execution in a computer, a thread is the object that carries out instructions, and a process is the object created when a program is run. Code carried out to handle certain hardware interrupts or trap conditions may be counted for this process.

% User Time: User Time is the percentage of elapsed time that this process's threads have spent running code in user mode. Applications run in user mode, as do subsystems like the Window Manager and the graphics engine. Code carried out in user mode cannot damage the integrity of the Windows NT Executive, Kernel, and device drivers. Unlike some early operating systems, Windows NT uses process boundaries for subsystem protection in addition to the traditional protection of user and privileged modes. These subsystem processes provide additional protection. Therefore, some work done by Windows NT on behalf of your application may appear in other subsystem processes in addition to the Privileged Time in your process.

Bitmap Hit Ratio: A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes available for the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Bitmap Hits: This is the number of bitmap hits from the cache. A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes configured in the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Bitmap Reads: This is the number of bitmap references of the cache.

Brush Hit Ratio: A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes available for the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Brush Hits: A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes configured in the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Brush Reads: This is the number of brush references to the cache.

Elapsed Time: The total elapsed time (in seconds) this process has been running.

Glyph Hit Ratio: A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes available for the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Glyph Hits: A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes configured in the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Glyph Reads: This is the number of Glyph references to the cache.

ID Process: ID Process is the unique identifier of this process. ID Process numbers are reused, so they only identify a process for the lifetime of that process.

Input Async Frame Error: Number of input async framing errors. These can be caused by a noisy transmission line. Using a smaller packet size may help in some cases.

Input Async Overflow: Number of input async overflow errors. These can be caused by a lack of buffer space available on the host.

Input Async Overrun: Number of input async overrun errors. These errors can be caused by the baud rate being faster than the computer can handle or a non-16550 serial line being used. Overruns can also occur if too many high- speed serial lines are active at one time for the processors' power. Look at the System Object percent processor time, as well as the number of interrupts per second rate. Use of intelligent multiport boards can reduce the number of interrupts that the host must service per second, cutting down on CPU overhead.

Input Async Parity Error: Number of input async parity errors. These erros can be caused by a noisy transmission line.

Input Bytes: Number of bytes input on this Session that includes all protocol overhead.

Input Compress Flushes: Number of input compression dictionary flushes. When the data can not be compressed, the compression dictionary is flushed so that newer data has a better chance of being compressed. Some causes of data not compressing includes transferring compressed files over Client Drive Mapping.

Input Compressed Bytes: Number of bytes input after compression. This number compared with the Total Bytes input is the compression ratio.

Input Compression Ratio: Compression ratio of the server input data stream.

Input Errors: Number of input errors of all types. For example, some input errors are lost ACK's, badly formed packets, and so forth.

Input Frames: Number of frames (packets) input on this session.

Input Timeouts: This is the total number of timeouts on the communication line as seen from the client side of the connection. These are typically the result of a noisy line. On some high-latency networks, this could be the result of the protocol timeout being too short. Increasing the protocol timeout on these types of lines will improve performance by reducing needless retransmissions.

Input Waitforoutbuf: This is the number of times that a wait for an available send buffer was done by the protocols on the client side of the connection. This is an indication that not enough memory buffers have been allocated for the specific protocol stack configuration. Better performance on high-latency networks can be achieved by specifying enough protocol buffers so that this count remains low.

Input Wdbytes: Number of bytes input on this session after all protocol overhead has been removed.

Input Wdframes: This is the number of frames input after any additional protocol-added frames have been removed. If Input Frames is a multiple of this number, then a protocol driver is breaking requests up into multiple frames for transmission. You may want to use a smaller protocol buffer size.

Output Async Frame Error: Number of output async framing errors. This could be caused by a hardware or line problem.

Output Async Overflow: Number of output async overflow errors.

Output Async Overrun: Number of output async overrun errors.

Output Bytes: Number of bytes output on this session that includes all protocol overhead.

Output Compress Flushes: Number of output compression dictionary flushes. When the data can not be compressed, the compression dictionary is flushed so that newer data has a better chance of being compressed. Some causes of data not compressing includes transferring compressed files over Client Drive Mapping.

Output Compressed Bytes: Number of bytes output after compression. This number compared with the Total Bytes output is the compression ratio.

Output Compression Ratio: Compression ratio of the server output data stream.

Output Errors: Number of output errors of all types. For example, some output errors are lost ACK's, badly formed packets, and so forth.

Output Frames: Number of frames (packets) output on this session.

Output Parity Errors: Number of output async parity errors. These can be caused by a hardware or line problem.

Output Timeouts: This is the total number of timeouts on the communication line from the host side of the connection. These are typically the result of a noisy line. On some high-latency networks, this could be the result of the protocol timeout being too short. Increasing the protocol timeout on these types of lines will improve performance by reducing needless retransmissions.

Output Waitforoutbuf: This is the number of times that a wait for an available send buffer was done by the protocols on the host side of the connection. This is an indication that not enough memory buffers have been allocated for the specific protocol stack configuration. Better performance on high-latency networks can be achieved by specifying enough protocol buffers so that this count remains low.

Output Wdbytes: Number of bytes output on this session after all protocol overhead has been removed.

Output Wdframes: This is the number of frames output before any additional protocol frames have been added. If Output Frames is a multiple of this number, then a protocol driver is breaking requests up into multiple frames for transmission. You may want to use a smaller protocol buffer size.

Page Faults/Sec: Page Faults/sec is the rate of Page Faults by the threads running in this process. A page fault occurs when a thread refers to a virtual memory page that is not in its working set in main memory. This will not cause the page to be fetched from disk if it is on the standby list and, hence, already in main memory, or if it is in use by another process with whom the page is shared.

Page File Bytes: Page File Bytes is the current number of bytes this process has used in the paging file(s). Paging files are used to store pages of memory used by the process that are not contained in other files. Paging files are shared by all processes, and lack of space in paging files can prevent other processes from allocating memory.

Page File Bytes Peak: Page File Bytes Peak is the maximum number of bytes this process has used in the paging file(s). Paging files are used to store pages of memory used by the process that are not contained in other files. Paging files are shared by all processes, and lack of space in paging files can prevent other processes from allocating memory.

Pool Nonpaged Bytes: Pool Nonpaged Bytes is the number of bytes in the Nonpaged Pool, a system memory area where space is acquired by operating system components as they accomplish their appointed tasks. Nonpaged Pool pages cannot be paged out to the paging file, but instead remain in main memory as long as they are allocated.

Pool Paged Bytes: Pool Paged Bytes is the number of bytes in the Paged Pool, a system memory area where space is acquired by operating system components as they accomplish their appointed tasks. Paged Pool pages can be paged out to the paging file when not accessed by the system for sustained periods of time.

Priority Base: The current base priority of this process. Threads within a process can raise and lower their own base priority relative to the process's base priority.

Private Bytes: Private Bytes is the current number of bytes this process has allocated that cannot be shared with other processes.

Save Screen Bitmap Hit Ratio: A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes available for the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Save Screen Bitmap Hits: Save screen bitmap hits. A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes configured in the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Save Screen Bitmap Reads: This is the number of save screen bitmap references to the cache.

Thread Count: The number of threads currently active in this process. An instruction is the basic unit of execution in a processor, and a thread is the object that carries out instructions. Every running process has at least one thread.

Total Async Frame Error: Total number of async framing errors. These can be caused by a noisy transmission line. Using a smaller packet size may help in some cases.

Total Async Overflow: Total number of async overflow errors. These can be caused by a lack of buffer space available on the host.

Total Async Overrun: Total number of async overrun errors. These can be caused by the baud rate being faster than the computer can handle, or a non- 16550 serial line is used. Overruns can also occur if too many high-speed serial lines are active at one time for the processors power. Look at the System Object percent processor time, as well as the number of interrupts per second rate. Use of intelligent multiport boards can reduce the number of interrupts that the host must service per second, cutting down on CPU overhead.

Total Async Parity Error: Total number of async parity errors. These can be caused by a noisy transmission line.

Total Bytes: Total number of bytes on this session that includes all protocol overhead.

Total Compress Flushes: Total number of compression dictionary flushes. When the data can not be compressed, the compression dictionary is flushed so that newer data has a better chance of being compressed. Some causes of data not compressing includes transferring compressed files over Client Drive Mapping.

Total Compressed Bytes: Total number of bytes after compression. This number compared with the total bytes is the compression ratio.

Total Compression Ratio: Total compression ratio of the server data stream for this session.

Total Errors: Total number of errors of all types. For example, some errors are lost ACK's, badly formed packets, and so forth.

Total Frames: Total number of frames (packets) on this session.

Total Protocol Hit Ratio: This is the overall hit ratio of all protocol objects. A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes available for the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Total Protocol Hits: Total protocol cache hits. The protocol caches windows objects that are likely to be reused to avoid having to re-send them on the transmission line. For example, objects are Windows icons, brushes, and so forth. Hits in the cache represent objects that did not need to be resent.

Total Protocol Hits/Sec: Total protocol cache hits per second. The protocol caches windows objects that are likely to be reused to avoid having to re-send them on the transmission line. For example, objects are Windows icons, brushes, and so forth. Hits in the cache represent objects that did not need to be resent.

Total Protocol Interval Hit Ratio: This is the overall hit ratio of all protocol objects in the last sample interval. A higher hit ratio means better performance because data transmissions are reduced. Low hit ratios are caused by the screen updating with new information that is either not reused, or is not used within the number of bytes available for the client cache. Increasing the size of the client cache may help for certain applications.

Total Protocol Reads: This represents the total protocol references to the cache.

Total Protocol Reads/Sec: This represents the total protocol references to the cache per second.

Total Waitforoutbuf: This is the number of times that a wait for an available send buffer was done by the protocols on both the host and client sides of the connection. This is an indication that not enough memory buffers have been allocated for the specific protocol stack configuration. Better performance on high latency networks can be achieved by specifying enough protocol buffers so that this count remains low.

Total Wdbytes: Total number of bytes on this session after all protocol overhead has been removed.

Total Wdframes: This is the total number of frames input and output before any additional protocol frames have been added. If Total Frames is a multiple of this number, then a protocol driver is breaking requests up into multiple frames for transmission. You may want to use a smaller protocol buffer size.

Virtual Bytes: Virtual Bytes is the current size in bytes of the virtual address space the process is using. Use of virtual address space does not necessarily imply corresponding use of either disk or main memory pages. Virtual space is however finite, and by using too much, the process may limit its ability to load libraries.

Virtual Bytes Peak: Virtual Bytes Peak is the maximum number of bytes of virtual address space the process has used at any one time. Use of virtual address space does not necessarily imply corresponding use of either disk or main memory pages. Virtual space is however finite, and by using too much, the process may limit its ability to load libraries.

Working Set: Working Set is the current number of bytes in the Working Set of this process. The Working Set is the set of memory pages touched recently by the threads in the process. If free memory in the computer is above a threshold, pages are left in the Working Set of a process even if they are not in use. When free memory falls below a threshold, pages are trimmed from Working Sets. If they are needed, they will then be soft- faulted back into the Working Set before they leave main memory.

Working Set Peak: Working Set Peak is the maximum number of bytes in the Working Set of this process at any point in time. The Working Set is the set of memory pages touched recently by the threads in the process. If free memory in the computer is above a threshold, pages are left in the Working Set of a process even if they are not in use. When free memory falls below a threshold, pages are trimmed from Working Sets. If they are needed, they will then be soft-faulted back into the Working Set before they leave main memory.

OBJECT: SYSTEM (Existing Object)

Active Session: This is the total number of active (logged on) sessions.

Inactive Session: This is the total number of inactive (not logged on) sessions.

Total Protocol Bytes/Sec: This is the total number of bytes transferred in the system as result of session communications.

OBJECT: USER (New Object)

The instances available for the object counters are the current sessions' logged on users plus System and Idle.

% Privileged Time: Privileged Time is the percentage of elapsed time that this process's threads have spent carrying out code in privileged mode. When a Windows NT system service is called, the service will often run in privileged mode to gain access to system-private data. Such data is protected from access by threads executing in user mode. Calls to the system may be explicit, or they may be implicit such as when a page fault or an interrupt occurs. Unlike some early operating systems, Windows NT uses process boundaries for subsystem protection in addition to the traditional protection of user and privileged modes. These subsystem processes provide additional protection. Therefore, some work done by Windows NT on behalf of your application may appear in other subsystem processes in addition to the Privileged Time in your process.

% Processor Time: Processor Time is the percentage of elapsed time that all of the threads of this process used the processor to carry out instructions. An instruction is the basic unit of execution in a computer, a thread is the object that carries out instructions, and a process is the object created when a program is run. Code carried out to handle certain hardware interrupts or trap conditions may be counted for this process.

% User Time: User Time is the percentage of elapsed time that this process's threads have spent running code in user mode. Applications run in user mode, as do subsystems like the Window Manager and the graphics engine. Code running in user mode cannot damage the integrity of the Windows NT Executive, Kernel, and device drivers. Unlike some early operating systems, Windows NT uses process boundaries for subsystem protection in addition to the traditional protection of user and privileged modes. These subsystem processes provide additional protection. Therefore, some work done by Windows NT on behalf of your application may appear in other subsystem processes in addition to the Privileged Time in your process.

Elapsed Time: The total elapsed time (in seconds) this process has been running.

ID Process: ID Process is the unique identifier of this process. ID Process numbers are reused, so they only identify a process for the lifetime of that process.

Page Faults/Sec: Page Faults/sec is the rate of Page Faults by the threads executing in this process. A page fault occurs when a thread refers to a virtual memory page that is not in its working set in main memory. This will not cause the page to be fetched from disk if it is on the standby list and, hence, already in main memory, or if it is in use by another process with whom the page is shared.

Page File Bytes: Page File Bytes is the current number of bytes this process has used in the paging file(s). Paging files are used to store pages of memory used by the process that are not contained in other files. Paging files are shared by all processes, and lack of space in paging files can prevent other processes from allocating memory.

Page File Bytes Peak: Page File Bytes Peak is the maximum number of bytes this process has used in the paging file(s). Paging files are used to store pages of memory used by the process that are not contained in other files. Paging files are shared by all processes, and lack of space in paging files can prevent other processes from allocating memory.

Pool Nonpaged Bytes: Pool Nonpaged Bytes is the number of bytes in the Nonpaged Pool, a system memory area where space is acquired by operating system components as they accomplish their appointed tasks. Nonpaged Pool pages cannot be paged out to the paging file, but instead remain in main memory as long as they are allocated.

Pool Paged Bytes: Pool Paged Bytes is the number of bytes in the Paged Pool, a system memory area where space is acquired by operating system components as they accomplish their appointed tasks. Paged Pool pages can be paged out to the paging file when not accessed by the system for sustained periods of time.

Priority Base: The current base priority of this process. Threads within a process can raise and lower their own base priority relative to the process's base priority.

Private Bytes: Private Bytes is the current number of bytes this process has allocated that cannot be shared with other processes.

Thread Count: The number of threads currently active in this process. An instruction is the basic unit of execution in a processor, and a thread is the object that carries out instructions. Every running process has at least one thread.

Virtual Bytes: Virtual Bytes is the current size in bytes of the virtual address space the process is using. Use of virtual address space does not necessarily imply corresponding use of either disk or main memory pages. Virtual space is however finite, and by using too much, the process may limit its ability to load libraries.

Virtual Bytes Peak: Virtual Bytes Peak is the maximum number of bytes of virtual address space the process has used at any one time. Use of virtual address space does not necessarily imply corresponding use of either disk or main memory pages. Virtual space is however finite, and by using too much, the process may limit its ability to load libraries.

Working Set: Working Set is the current number of bytes in the Working Set of this process. The Working Set is the set of memory pages touched recently by the threads in the process. If free memory in the computer is above a threshold, pages are left in the Working Set of a process even if they are not in use. When free memory falls below a threshold, pages are trimmed from Working Sets. If they are needed, they will then be soft- faulted back into the Working Set before they leave main memory.

Working Set Peak: Working Set Peak is the maximum number of bytes in the Working Set of this process at any point in time. The Working Set is the set of memory pages touched recently by the threads in the process. If free memory in the computer is above a threshold, pages are left in the Working Set of a process even if they are not in use. When free memory falls below a threshold, pages are trimmed from Working Sets. If they are needed, they will then be soft-faulted back into the Working Set before they leave main memory.

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Article ID: 186536 - Last Review: June 22, 2014 - Revision: 4.0
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