文章編號: 2160852 - 檢視此文章適用的產品。
本文包含有關虛擬記憶體實作，在 32 位元版本的 Windows 中的基本資訊。 這項資訊是有關 Windows 2000、 Windows XP，Windows Server 2003，Windows Vista 和 Windows Server 2008。 (因為 Windows Server 2008 R2 只能在 64 位元版本中使用所以此資訊並不會套用至該)。
現代的作業系統來說，例如 Windows、 應用程式和許多系統處理程序中永遠參考所使用的虛擬記憶體位址的記憶體。 真正的 (RAM) 位址來自動轉譯虛擬記憶體位址的硬體。 只有核心部分作業系統核心略過此位址轉譯，並直接使用實際的記憶體位址。
永遠正在使用虛擬記憶體，甚至時所需的所有正在執行的處理程序的記憶體不會超過系統安裝的 RAM 數量。
使用 Bruce Sanderson Windows 部落格上的這份文件的擴充的版本。 若要到這份文件，請造訪下列的部落格網站：
Bruce Sanderson 一般 Windows 資訊： RAM]、 [虛擬記憶體]、 [分頁檔，] 及 [所有的項目
處理程序] 和 [地址空間在 32 位元版本的 Windows 下執行的所有處理 (比方就說應用程式執行檔) 會被都指派虛擬記憶體位址 (a虛擬位址空間)，範圍從 0 到 4294967295 (2 * 32-1 = 4 GB)，多少 RAM 不論實際安裝在電腦上。
In the default Windows configuration, 2 gigabytes (GB) of this virtual address space are designated for the private use of each process, and the other 2 GB is shared between all processes and the operating system. Typically, applications (for example, Notepad, Word, Excel, and Acrobat Reader) use only a fraction of the 2 GB of private address space. The operating system assigns RAM page frames only to those virtual memory pages that are being used.
Physical Address Extension (PAE) is the feature of the Intel 32-bit architecture that expands the physical memory (RAM) address to 36 bits. PAE does not change the size of the virtual address space (which remains at 4 GB), but just the volume of actual RAM that can be addressed by the processor. 如需詳細資訊，請按一下下列的文件編號，檢視 「 Microsoft 知識庫 」 中的文件：：
268363The translation between the 32-bit virtual memory address that is used by the code that is running in a process and the 36-bit RAM address is handled automatically and transparently by the computer hardware according totranslation tablesthat are maintained by the operating system. Any virtual memory page (32-bit address) can be associated with any physical RAM page (36-bit address).
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/268363/ )Intel Physical Addressing Extensions (PAE) in Windows 2000
The following list describes how much RAM the various Windows versions and editions support (as of May 2010):
PagefileRAM is a limited resource, whereas for most practical purposes, virtual memory is unlimited. There can be many processes, and each process has its own 2 GB of private virtual address space. When the memory being used by all the existing processes exceeds the available RAM, the operating system moves pages (4-KB pieces) of one or more virtual address spaces to the computer’s hard disk. This frees that RAM frame for other uses. In Windows systems, these “paged out” pages are stored in one or more files (Pagefile.sys files) in the root of a partition. There can be one such file in each disk partition. The location and size of the page file is configured inSystem Properties(click進階按一下效能然後按一下 「設定button).
Users frequently ask "how big should I make the pagefile?" There is no single answer to this question because it depends on the amount of installed RAM and on how much virtual memory that workload requires. If there is no other information available, the typical recommendation of 1.5 times the installed RAM is a good starting point. On server systems, you typically want to have sufficient RAM so that there is never a shortage and so that the pagefile is basically not used. On these systems, it may serve no useful purpose to maintain a really large pagefile. On the other hand, if disk space is plentiful, maintaining a large pagefile (for example, 1.5 times the installed RAM) does not cause a problem, and this also eliminates the need to worry over how large to make it.
Performance, architectural limits, and RAMOn any computer system, as the load increases (the number of users, the volume of work), performance decreases, but in a nonlinear manner. Any increase in load or demand, beyond a certain point, causes a significant decrease in performance. This means that some resource is in critically short supply and has become a bottleneck.
At some point, the resource that is in short supply cannot be increased. This means that anarchitectural limithas been reached. Some frequently reported architectural limits in Windows include the following:
Frequently found and quoted statements such as the following:
With a Terminal Server, the 2 GB of shared address space will be completely used before 4 GB of RAM is used.”This may be true in some cases. However, you have to monitor your system to know whether they apply to your particular system or not. In some cases, these statements are conclusions from specific Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 environments and do not necessarily apply to Windows Server 2003. Significant changes were made to Windows Server 2003 to reduce the probability that these architectural limits will in fact be reached in practice. For example, some processes that were in the kernel were moved to non-kernel processes to reduce the memory used in the shared virtual address space.
Monitoring RAM and virtual memory usagePerformance Monitor is the principle tool for monitoring system performance and for identifying the location of the bottleneck. To start Performance Monitor, click啟動按一下控制項面板按一下系統管理工具, and then double-clickPerformance Monitor. Here is a summary of some important counters and what they tell you:
文章編號: 2160852 - 上次校閱: 2010年12月21日 - 版次: 2.0
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