# XL: Order of Operations in Formulas

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## SUMMARY

When you combine several operators into a single formula, Microsoft Excel performs the operations in the following order:

```   :                 Range
space             Intersection
,                 Union
-                 Negation
%                 Percentage
^                 Exponentiation
* or /            Multiplication or Division
+ or -            Addition or Subtraction
&                 Text Operator
= < > <= >= <>    Comparison Operators
```

If you want to alter this order, use parentheses to group expressions in your formula. Microsoft Excel first calculates the expression in parentheses, then uses those results to calculate the formula.

For example, the following formula

```   =(5*4+2)
```

returns a value of 22, while the formula

```   =5*(4+2)
```

returns a value of 30.

NOTE: This order of operation is different from the order of operation in Lotus 1-2-3.

The third-party products discussed here are manufactured by vendors independent of Microsoft; we make no warranty, implied or otherwise, regarding these products' performance or reliability.

## REFERENCES

For more information about operator precedence, click the Index tab in Microsoft Excel 97 Help, type the following text

```   operators, evaluation order in formulas
```

and then double-click the selected text to go to the "The order in which Microsoft Excel performs operations in formulas" topic.

For more information about operator precedence, click the Index tab in Microsoft Excel 7.0 Help, type the following text

```   operators, precedence
```

and then double-click the selected text to go to the "Operator Precedence" topic.

For more information about "Mathematical Operator Evaluation in Lotus 1.2.3 and Microsoft Excel," click the Search button in Microsoft Excel 5.0 Help, type the following, and then click Display:

```   Operator
```

## Properties

Article ID: 25189 - Last Review: August 16, 2005 - Revision: 1.1
##### APPLIES TO
• Microsoft Excel 2.0 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 2.01
• Microsoft Excel 2.1 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 2.10c
• Microsoft Excel 2.10d
• Microsoft Excel 3.0 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 4.0 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 4.0a
• Microsoft Excel 4.0c
• Microsoft Excel 5.0 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 5.0c
• Microsoft Excel 95 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 95a
• Microsoft Excel 97 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Excel 1.0 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 1.03 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 1.04 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 1.06 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 1.5 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 1.5a for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 2.2 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 2.2a
• Microsoft Excel 3.0 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 4.0 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 5.0 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 5.0a for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 5.0 for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 5.0a for Macintosh
• Microsoft Excel 98 for Macintosh
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