How to design a sample table to support questionnaire applications in Access 2002

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Article ID: 292299 - View products that this article applies to.
This article was previously published under Q292299
Novice: Requires knowledge of the user interface on single-user computers.

This article applies to a Microsoft Access database (.mdb) and to a Microsoft Access project (.adp).

For a Microsoft Access 97 version of this article, see 101675.
For a Microsoft Access 2000 version of this article, see 209493.
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SUMMARY

This article describes a table design that you can use for an application that tallies results from questionnaires and surveys.

MORE INFORMATION

The following examples outline nonrelational table design commonly used for questionnaires and surveys, and suggests an improved, relational table design.

Nonrelational Table Design

When designing tables for questionnaire applications, many users begin with a design that resembles the following table. Each record contains multiple fields, called Question1 through Question<n>, that contain responses to the questions.
   Table: Table1 (old)
   --------------------------------------
   FieldName: RespondentID [Primary Key]
   FieldName: Question1
   FieldName: Question2
   FieldName: Question3
   .
   .
   .
   FieldName: Question<n>

				
Problems occur when you want to perform crosstab queries to summarize or graph the questionnaire results (or both).

Relational Table Design

A relational table design better supports summary queries, reports, and graphs. In the following table, the Question ID field identifies the question and the Response field contains the answer.
   Table: Table2 (new)
   ----------------------------------
   Field: RespondentID [Primary Key]
   Field: QuestionID   [Primary Key]
   Field: Response
				

How to Switch to Relational Database Design

Steps Using an Access Database.

  1. Create the following table:
       Table: Table2
       ----------------------------
       Column Name: RespondentID
       Datatype: Integer
    
       Column Name: QuestionID
       Datatype: text
    
       Column Name: Response
       Datatype: yes/no
    
       Table Properties: Table2
       ------------------------------------
       PrimaryKey: RespondentID, QuestionID
    					
  2. Create a new query that is based on Table1.
  3. On the Query menu, click Append Query. Select Table2 as the table to which you want to append the data. Design the query as follows:
          Query: Query1
          -----------------------
          Field: RespondentID
          Append To: RespondentID
          Field: Question1
          Append To: Response
          Field: "Question1"
          Append To: QuestionID
    					
  4. Run Query1 to append to Table2 each participant's responses to Question1.

    Repeat steps 2 through 4, replacing Question1 with Question2, and "Question1" with "Question2". Modify and run this query for each question in Table1.
  5. After running all the append queries, the result is a table (Table2) that can easily summarize your results in a totals query:
       Query: qryResults
       ----------------------------------------------------
    
       Field: QuestionID
       Table: Table2
       Total: Group By
    
       Field: Ayes: Abs(Sum([Response]=Yes}}
       Total: Expression
    
       Field: Noes: Count([Response]) + Sum([Response]=Yes)
       Total: Expression
    
    					

Steps Using an Access Project.

  1. Create the following table:
       Table: Table2
       -------------------------
       Column Name: RespondentID
       Datatype: int
    
       Column Name: QuestionID
       Datatype: nvarchar
    
       Column Name: Response
       Datatype: bit
    
       Table Properties: Table2
       ------------------------------------
       PrimaryKey: RespondentID, QuestionID
    					
  2. Create a new stored procedure. To do so, click Queries under Objects in the Database window, click New, and then click Create Text Stored Procedure.
  3. Type and then run the following statement:
       Create Procedure StoredProc1
       AS
       INSERT INTO Table2 (RespondentID, Response, QuestionID) 
       SELECT Table1.RespondentID, Table1.Question1, 'Question1' AS Expr1
       FROM Table1
    					
  4. Edit and run StoredProc1 for each question by opening the procedure in SQL view. For example, the stored procedure for the second question would read:
       Alter Procedure StoredProc1
       AS
       INSERT INTO Table2 (RespondentID, Response, QuestionID) 
       SELECT Table1.RespondentID, Table1.Question2, 'Question2' AS Expr1
       FROM Table1
    						
    Note that the keyword "Create" is used in the initial instance; the keyword "Alter" is used in subsequent instances.
  5. To display the number of positive responses, create a stored procedure similar to step 2, and then run the following statement:
       Create Procedure Ayes
       As
       SELECT QuestionID Question, COUNT(ALL QuestionID) [Yes count]
       FROM Table2
       WHERE Response = 1
       GROUP BY QuestionID
    					
  6. To display the number of negative responses, create a stored procedure similar to step 2, and then run the following statement:
       Create Procedure Noes
       As
       SELECT QuestionID Question, COUNT(ALL QuestionID) [No count]
       FROM Table2
       WHERE Response = 0
       GROUP BY QuestionID
    					

REFERENCES

For more information about append queries, click Microsoft Access Help on the Help menu, type create an append query in the Office Assistant or the Answer Wizard, and then click Search to view the topics returned.

Properties

Article ID: 292299 - Last Review: August 19, 2004 - Revision: 3.1
APPLIES TO
  • Microsoft Access 2002 Standard Edition
Keywords: 
kbhowto KB292299

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