Como efectuar ping a um endereço IP com o Visual Basic utilizando ICMP

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Sumário

Este artigo passo-a-passo descreve como efectuar o ping a um endereço IP (Internet Protocol) remoto utilizando o Visual Basic 6.0 e o ficheiro Icmp.dll.

Utilizar o ICMP para efectuar um ping no Visual Basic

  1. Inicie o Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0.
  2. Na caixa de diálogo New Project, clique em Standard EXE e, em seguida, clique em Open. O Visual Basic Design Editor é aberto e o Form1 é carregado.
  3. Para adicionar um novo módulo a este projecto, clique com o botão direito do rato em Project1.vbp no Project Explorer, aponte para Add e, em seguida, clique em Module.
  4. Na caixa de diálogo Add Module, clique em Open. O módulo Module1.bas é adicionado ao projecto e é aberto na janela Code Editor.
  5. Na parte superior da janela Code Editor do Module1, adicione as seguintes constantes e declaração de função:
    Option Explicit
    
    'Icmp constants converted from
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wmisdk/wmi/win32_pingstatus.asp
    
    Private Const ICMP_SUCCESS As Long = 0
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_BUFFER_TO_SMALL = 11001                   'Buffer Too Small
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_NET_UNREACH = 11002           'Destination Net Unreachable
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_HOST_UNREACH = 11003          'Destination Host Unreachable
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PROTOCOL_UNREACH = 11004      'Destination Protocol Unreachable
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PORT_UNREACH = 11005          'Destination Port Unreachable
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_NO_RESOURCE = 11006                       'No Resources
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_OPTION = 11007                        'Bad Option
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_HARDWARE_ERROR = 11008                    'Hardware Error
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_LARGE_PACKET = 11009                      'Packet Too Big
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_REQUEST_TIMED_OUT = 11010                 'Request Timed Out
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_REQUEST = 11011                       'Bad Request
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_ROUTE = 11012                         'Bad Route
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_TRANSIT = 11013               'TimeToLive Expired Transit
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_REASSEMBLY = 11014            'TimeToLive Expired Reassembly
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_PARAMETER = 11015                         'Parameter Problem
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_SOURCE_QUENCH = 11016                     'Source Quench
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_OPTION_TOO_BIG = 11017                    'Option Too Big
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_DESTINATION = 11018                   'Bad Destination
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_NEGOTIATING_IPSEC = 11032                 'Negotiating IPSEC
    Private Const ICMP_STATUS_GENERAL_FAILURE = 11050                   'General Failure
    
    Public Const WINSOCK_ERROR = "Windows Sockets not responding correctly."
    Public Const INADDR_NONE As Long = &HFFFFFFFF
    Public Const WSA_SUCCESS = 0
    Public Const WS_VERSION_REQD As Long = &H101
    
    'Clean up sockets.
    'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512
    
    Private Declare Function WSACleanup Lib "WSOCK32.DLL" () As Long
    
    'Open the socket connection.
    'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512
    Private Declare Function WSAStartup Lib "WSOCK32.DLL" (ByVal wVersionRequired As Long, lpWSADATA As WSADATA) As Long
    
    'Create a handle on which Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) requests can be issued.
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcesdkr/htm/_wcesdk_icmpcreatefile.asp
    Private Declare Function IcmpCreateFile Lib "icmp.dll" () As Long
    
    'Convert a string that contains an (Ipv4) Internet Protocol dotted address into a correct address.
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/winsock/wsapiref_4esy.asp
    Private Declare Function inet_addr Lib "WSOCK32.DLL" (ByVal cp As String) As Long
    
    'Close an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) handle that IcmpCreateFile opens.
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcesdkr/htm/_wcesdk_icmpclosehandle.asp
    
    Private Declare Function IcmpCloseHandle Lib "icmp.dll" (ByVal IcmpHandle As Long) As Long
    
    'Information about the Windows Sockets implementation
    'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512
    Private Type WSADATA
       wVersion As Integer
       wHighVersion As Integer
       szDescription(0 To 256) As Byte
       szSystemStatus(0 To 128) As Byte
       iMaxSockets As Long
       iMaxUDPDG As Long
       lpVendorInfo As Long
    End Type
    
    'Send an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request, and then return one or more replies.
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcetcpip/htm/cerefIcmpSendEcho.asp
    Private Declare Function IcmpSendEcho Lib "icmp.dll" _
       (ByVal IcmpHandle As Long, _
        ByVal DestinationAddress As Long, _
        ByVal RequestData As String, _
        ByVal RequestSize As Long, _
        ByVal RequestOptions As Long, _
        ReplyBuffer As ICMP_ECHO_REPLY, _
        ByVal ReplySize As Long, _
        ByVal Timeout As Long) As Long
     
    'This structure describes the options that will be included in the header of an IP packet.
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcetcpip/htm/cerefIP_OPTION_INFORMATION.asp
    Private Type IP_OPTION_INFORMATION
       Ttl             As Byte
       Tos             As Byte
       Flags           As Byte
       OptionsSize     As Byte
       OptionsData     As Long
    End Type
    
    'This structure describes the data that is returned in response to an echo request.
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcesdkr/htm/_wcesdk_icmp_echo_reply.asp
    Public Type ICMP_ECHO_REPLY
       address         As Long
       Status          As Long
       RoundTripTime   As Long
       DataSize        As Long
       Reserved        As Integer
       ptrData                 As Long
       Options        As IP_OPTION_INFORMATION
       Data            As String * 250
    End Type
    
    '-- Ping a string representation of an IP address.
    ' -- Return a reply.
    ' -- Return long code.
    Public Function ping(sAddress As String, Reply As ICMP_ECHO_REPLY) As Long
    
    Dim hIcmp As Long
    Dim lAddress As Long
    Dim lTimeOut As Long
    Dim StringToSend As String
    
    'Short string of data to send
    StringToSend = "hello"
    
    'ICMP (ping) timeout
    lTimeOut = 1000 'ms
    
    'Convert string address to a long representation.
    lAddress = inet_addr(sAddress)
    
    If (lAddress <> -1) And (lAddress <> 0) Then
            
        'Create the handle for ICMP requests.
        hIcmp = IcmpCreateFile()
        
        If hIcmp Then
            'Ping the destination IP address.
            Call IcmpSendEcho(hIcmp, lAddress, StringToSend, Len(StringToSend), 0, Reply, Len(Reply), lTimeOut)
    
            'Reply status
            ping = Reply.Status
            
            'Close the Icmp handle.
            IcmpCloseHandle hIcmp
        Else
            Debug.Print "failure opening icmp handle."
            ping = -1
        End If
    Else
        ping = -1
    End If
    
    End Function
    
    'Clean up the sockets.
    'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512
    Public Sub SocketsCleanup()
       
       WSACleanup
        
    End Sub
    
    'Get the sockets ready.
    'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512
    Public Function SocketsInitialize() As Boolean
    
       Dim WSAD As WSADATA
    
       SocketsInitialize = WSAStartup(WS_VERSION_REQD, WSAD) = ICMP_SUCCESS
    
    End Function
    
    'Convert the ping response to a message that you can read easily from constants.
    'For more information about these constants, visit the following Microsoft Web site: 
    'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wmisdk/wmi/win32_pingstatus.asp
    
    Public Function EvaluatePingResponse(PingResponse As Long) As String
    
      Select Case PingResponse
        
      'Success
      Case ICMP_SUCCESS: EvaluatePingResponse = "Success!"
                
      'Some error occurred
      Case ICMP_STATUS_BUFFER_TO_SMALL:    EvaluatePingResponse = "Buffer Too Small"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_NET_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Net Unreachable"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_HOST_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Host Unreachable"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PROTOCOL_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Protocol Unreachable"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PORT_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Port Unreachable"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_NO_RESOURCE: EvaluatePingResponse = "No Resources"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_OPTION: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Option"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_HARDWARE_ERROR: EvaluatePingResponse = "Hardware Error"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_LARGE_PACKET: EvaluatePingResponse = "Packet Too Big"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_REQUEST_TIMED_OUT: EvaluatePingResponse = "Request Timed Out"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_REQUEST: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Request"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_ROUTE: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Route"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_TRANSIT: EvaluatePingResponse = "TimeToLive Expired Transit"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_REASSEMBLY: EvaluatePingResponse = "TimeToLive Expired Reassembly"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_PARAMETER: EvaluatePingResponse = "Parameter Problem"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_SOURCE_QUENCH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Source Quench"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_OPTION_TOO_BIG: EvaluatePingResponse = "Option Too Big"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_DESTINATION: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Destination"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_NEGOTIATING_IPSEC: EvaluatePingResponse = "Negotiating IPSEC"
      Case ICMP_STATUS_GENERAL_FAILURE: EvaluatePingResponse = "General Failure"
                
      'Unknown error occurred
      Case Else: EvaluatePingResponse = "Unknown Response"
            
      End Select
    
    End Function
    						
    Nota Tome cuidado com a moldagem de texto quando copiar este código para o projecto. Este código fornece as funções para aceder ao ficheiro Icmp.dll. Consulte os comentários inline para obter uma descrição das constantes, declarações e chamadas de função.
  6. No Project Explorer, clique com o botão direito do rato em Form1 e, em seguida, clique em View Object. O Form1 é carregado na janela Designer.
  7. Faça duplo clique no corpo de Form1. A janela Code Editor é aberta com o código seguinte:
    Private Sub Form_Load()
    
    End Sub
    					
  8. Substitua o código existente no método Form_Load pelo código seguinte:
    Private Sub Form_Load()
    
       Dim Reply As ICMP_ECHO_REPLY
       Dim lngSuccess As Long
       Dim strIPAddress As String
       
       'Get the sockets ready.
       If SocketsInitialize() Then
          
        'Address to ping
        strIPAddress = "192.168.1.1"
        
        'Ping the IP that is passing the address and get a reply.
        lngSuccess = ping(strIPAddress, Reply)
          
        'Display the results.
        Debug.Print "Address to Ping: " & strIPAddress
        Debug.Print "Raw ICMP code: " & lngSuccess
        Debug.Print "Ping Response Message : " & EvaluatePingResponse(lngSuccess)
        Debug.Print "Time : " & Reply.RoundTripTime & " ms"
          
        'Clean up the sockets.
        SocketsCleanup
          
       Else
       
       'Winsock error failure, initializing the sockets.
       Debug.Print WINSOCK_ERROR
       
       End If
       
    End Sub
    					
  9. Localize as seguintes linhas de código:
        'Address to ping
        strIPAddress = "192.168.1.1"
    						
    Altere o strIPAddress para o endereço IP ao qual pretenda efectuar o ping.
  10. Para guardar o projecto e os ficheiros associados, clique em Save Project no menu File.
  11. Note que os resultados do código são escritos na janela Immediate. Para verificar se a janela Immediate está aberta, clique em Immediate Window no menu View.
  12. Para testar este código, prima F5. Os resultados são apresentados na janela Immediate. Os resultados são semelhantes aos seguintes:
    Address to Ping: 192.168.1.1
    Raw ICMP code: 0
    Ping Response Message : Success!
    Time : 10 ms
    						
Nota Para efectuar ping a um nome de domínio, tem de o converter primeiro num endereço. Para obter mais informações, clique no número de artigo que se segue para visualizar o artigo na Base de Dados de Conhecimento Microsoft:
154512 SAMPLE: Winsock.exe getting HostAddress by using Windows Sockets

Referências

Para obter mais informações, clique nos números de artigo que se seguem para visualizar os artigos na Base de Dados de Conhecimento Microsoft:
160215 How to obtain the host IP address by using Windows Sockets
154512 SAMPLE: Winsock.exe getting HostAddress by using Windows Sockets
Win32_PingStatus
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wmisdk/wmi/win32_pingstatus.asp

WSACleanup
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/winsock/winsock/wsacleanup_2.asp

WSAStartup
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/winsock/winsock/wsastartup_2.asp

IcmpSendEcho
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/iphlp/iphlp/icmpsendecho.asp

IcmpCreateFile
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/iphlp/iphlp/icmpcreatefile.asp

IcmpCloseHandle
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/iphlp/iphlp/icmpclosehandle.asp

Propriedades

Artigo: 300197 - Última revisão: 28 de dezembro de 2007 - Revisão: 1.1
A informação contida neste artigo aplica-se a:
  • Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Enterprise Edition
  • Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Professional Edition
Palavras-chave: 
kbhowto kbhowtomaster KB300197

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