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How the Cluster service reserves a disk and brings a disk online
Article ID: 309186 - View products that this article applies to.
This article was previously published under Q309186
This article describes how the Microsoft Cluster service reserves and brings online disks that are managed by cluster service and related drivers.
The Cluster service only uses the SCSI protocol to manage disks on the shared bus.
Note This does not mean that all disks will be of type SCSI, specifying the hardware interface known as SCSI, but rather that the storage unit must be able to properly interpret and process the SCSI protocol and commands.
The following list of commands are the additional SCSI protocol features that will be used when disks are in a clustered environment.
When the computer is started, the Cluster Disk Driver (Clusdisk.sys) reads the following local registry key to obtain a list of the signatures of the shared disks under cluster management:
After the list is obtained, the cluster service attempts to scan all of the devices on the shared SCSI bus to find matching disk signatures.
When the first node in the cluster starts, the cluster disk driver first marks all LUNs (LUN: logical unit number, a unique identifier used on a SCSI bus to distinguish between devices that share the same bus) matching the Signatures key as offline volumes. Note that this is not the same as taking a cluster resource offline. The volume is marked offline to prevent multiple nodes from having write access to the volumes simultaneously. If the cluster is a shared disk cluster, one of the disks is designated as quorum disk by the cluster service. Quorum disk is the first resource brought online when cluster service attempts to form a cluster.
When the cluster service on the forming node starts, it first tries to bring online the physical device designated as quorum disk. It executes the disk arbitration algorithm on the quorum disk to gain ownership. On successful arbitration, cluster service sends a request to clusdisk to start sending periodic reserves to the disk (to maintain ownership). Then cluster service sends a request to clusdisk to unblock access to the quorum disk and mounts the volumes on the disk. Successful mounting of the volume(s), completes the online procedure and the cluster service then continues with the cluster form process. The request is passed from the cluster disk driver to the Microsoft storage driver stack and finally to the driver specific to the HBA that communicates to the disks. It may also be passed to any multipath software running in the storage stack. For more information regarding storage stacks and driver models, please click the following links:
After the storage controller/device driver reports that the device has been successfully reserved, the cluster service ensures that the drive can be read from and written to. Once the disk has passed all of these tests, the disk resource is marked as online and the cluster service then continues to bring all other resources online.
Each node in the cluster renews reservations for any LUNs it owns every three seconds. If the nodes of a cluster lose network communication with each other (for example, if there is no communication over the private or public network), the nodes begin a process known as arbitration to determine ownership of the quorum disk. The node that wins ownership of the quorum disk resources in total communication loss between cluster node will remain functional. Any nodes that cannot communicate and cannot maintain or acquire ownership of the quorum disk will terminate the cluster service and any resources that node was hosting will be moved to another node in the cluster.
Article ID: 309186 - Last Review: September 11, 2011 - Revision: 6.0