HOW TO: Call a Parameterized Stored Procedure by Using ADO.NET and Visual C# .NET

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SUMMARY

There are several ways to use ADO.NET to call a stored procedure and to get back return values and return parameters, including:
  • Use a DataSet object to gather the returned rows and to work with these rows in addition to the return values and the return parameters.
  • Use a DataReader object to gather the returned rows, to move through these rows, and then to gather return values and return parameters.
  • Use the ExecuteScalar method to return the value from the first column of the results' first row with the return values and the return parameters. This is most useful with aggregate functions.
  • Use the ExecuteNonQuery method to return only the return parameters and the return values. Any returned rows are discarded. This is most useful for executing action queries.
This article demonstrates the last three methods and uses both the SqlCommand and the OleDbCommand objects. Make sure that you copy only the code for the managed provider that you are using. If you are not sure which managed provider you should use, visit the following Microsoft Developer Network Web site:
.NET Data Providers
In each of the samples in this article, the parameters are added to the Parameters collection of the Command object. When you use the SqlCommand object, you do not have add the parameters in any particular order, but the parameters must have the correct name. When you use the OleDbCommand object, you must add the parameters in the correct order, and you cannot use the parameters by name.

Use DataReader to Return Rows and Parameters

You can use the DataReader object to return a read-only, forward-only stream of data. The information that the DataReader contains can come from a stored procedure. This example uses the DataReader object to run a stored procedure that has an input and an output parameter and then moves through the returned records to view the return parameters.
  1. Create the following stored procedure on the server that is running Microsoft SQL Server:
    Create Procedure TestProcedure
    (
      @au_idIN varchar (11),
      @numTitlesOUT Integer OUTPUT
    )
    AS 
    
    select A.au_fname, A.au_lname, T.title 
    from authors as A join titleauthor as TA on
    A.au_id=TA.au_id
    join titles as T
    on T.title_id=TA.title_id
    where A.au_id=@au_idIN
    set @numTitlesOUT = @@Rowcount
    return (5) 
    					
  2. Create a new Visual C# .NET Windows Application project.
  3. Use the using statement on the System and the System.Data namespaces so that you do not have to qualify declarations in those namespaces later in your code. Add this code to the top of the Form code module. Make sure to copy only the code for the provider that you have chosen.SQL Client
    using System.Data.SqlClient;
    					
    OLE DB Data Provider
    using System.Data.OleDb;
    					
  4. Replace the code in the private Form_Load event with the following code:SQL Client
    SqlConnection PubsConn = new SqlConnection 
    ("Data Source=server;integrated " + 
    "Security=sspi;initial catalog=pubs;");
    SqlCommand testCMD = new SqlCommand 
    ("TestProcedure", PubsConn);
    
    testCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    
    SqlParameter RetVal = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("RetVal", SqlDbType.Int);
    RetVal.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;
    SqlParameter IdIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
      ("@au_idIN", SqlDbType.VarChar, 11);
    IdIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    SqlParameter NumTitles = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@numtitlesout", SqlDbType.VarChar, 11);
    NumTitles.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output ;
            
    IdIn.Value = "213-46-8915";
    PubsConn.Open();
    
    SqlDataReader myReader = testCMD.ExecuteReader();
    Console.WriteLine ("Book Titles for this Author:");
    while (myReader.Read()) 
       {
         Console.WriteLine ("{0}", myReader.GetString (2));
       };
    myReader.Close() ;
    Console.WriteLine("Number of Rows: " + NumTitles.Value );
    Console.WriteLine("Return Value: " + RetVal.Value);
    					
    OLE DB Data Provider
    OleDbConnection PubsConn = new OleDbConnection 
       ("Provider=SQLOLEDB;Data Source=server;" + 
       "integrated Security=sspi;initial catalog=pubs;");
    OleDbCommand testCMD = new OleDbCommand 
       ("TestProcedure", PubsConn);
    
    testCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    
    OleDbParameter RetVal = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("RetVal", OleDbType.Integer);RetVal.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;
    OleDbParameter IdIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@au_idIN", OleDbType.VarChar, 11);
    IdIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    OleDbParameter NumTitles = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@numtitlesout", OleDbType.VarChar, 11);
    NumTitles.Direction = ParameterDirection.Output;
            
    IdIn.Value = "213-46-8915";
    
    PubsConn.Open();
    
    OleDbDataReader myReader = testCMD.ExecuteReader();
    Console.WriteLine ("Book Titles for this Author:");
    while (myReader.Read()) 
       {
         Console.WriteLine ("{0}", myReader.GetString (2));
       };
    myReader.Close() ;
    Console.WriteLine("Number of Rows: " + NumTitles.Value );
    Console.WriteLine("Return Value: " + RetVal.Value);
    					
  5. Modify the connection string for the Connection object to point to the computer that is running SQL Server.
  6. Run the code. Notice that the DataReader retrieves the records and then returns the parameter values. You can use the Read method of the DataReader object to move through the returned records.

    The Output window displays the titles of two books, the return value of 5, and the output parameter, which contains the number of records (2). Notice that you must close the DataReader in the code to see the parameter values. Additionally, note that you do not have to move through all of the records to see the return parameters if the DataReader is closed.

Use the ExecuteScalar Method of the Command Object

You can use the ExecuteScalar method of the Command object to retrieve parameter values. Additionally, ExecuteScalar returns the first column of the first row of the stored procedure. This is most useful for aggregate functions as in the following example.
  1. Create the following stored procedure on the server that is running SQL Server:
    Create Procedure TestProcedure2
    (
      @au_idIN varchar (11)
    )
    As
    /* set nocount on */ 
    select count (T.title) 
    from authors as A join titleauthor as TA on
    A.au_id=TA.au_id
    join titles as T
    on T.title_id=TA.title_id
    where A.au_id=@au_idIN
    Return(5)
    					
  2. Create a new Visual C# .NET Windows Application project.
  3. Use the using statement on the System and the System.Data namespaces so that you do not have to qualify declarations in those namespaces later in your code. Add this code to the top of the Form code module. Make sure that you copy only the code for the provider that you have chosen.SQL Client
    using System.Data.SqlClient;
    					
    OLE DB Data Provider
    using System.Data.OleDb;
    					
  4. Add the following code to the Form_Load event:SQL Client
    string strCount;
    SqlConnection PubsConn = new SqlConnection 
       ("Data Source=server;integrated " + 
       "Security=sspi;initial catalog=pubs;");
    SqlCommand testCMD = new SqlCommand 
       ("TestProcedure2", PubsConn);
    
    testCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    
    SqlParameter RetVal = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("RetVal", SqlDbType.Int);
    RetVal.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;
    SqlParameter IdIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@au_idIN", SqlDbType.VarChar, 11);
    IdIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
            
    IdIn.Value = "213-46-8915";
    
    PubsConn.Open();
    
    strCount =testCMD.ExecuteScalar ().ToString() ;
    
    Console.WriteLine("Number of Rows: " + strCount );
    Console.WriteLine("Return Value: " + RetVal.Value);
    					
    OLE DB Data Provider
    string strCount;
    OleDbConnection PubsConn = new OleDbConnection 
       ("Provider=SQLOLEDB;Data Source=server;" + 
       "integrated Security=sspi;initial catalog=pubs;");
    OleDbCommand testCMD = new OleDbCommand 
       ("TestProcedure2", PubsConn);
    
    testCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    
    OleDbParameter RetVal = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("RetVal", OleDbType.Integer);
    RetVal.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;
    OleDbParameter IdIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@au_idIN", OleDbType.VarChar, 11);
    IdIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    
    IdIn.Value = "213-46-8915";
    
    PubsConn.Open();
    
    strCount = testCMD.ExecuteScalar().ToString() ;
    
    Console.WriteLine("Number of Rows: " + strCount);
    Console.WriteLine("Return Value: " + RetVal.Value);
    					
  5. Modify the connection string for the Connection object to point to the computer that is running SQL Server.
  6. Run the code. Notice that the ExecuteScalar method of the Command object returns the parameters. ExecuteScalar also returns the value of column 1, row 1 of the returned rowset. Therefore, the value of intCount is the result of the count function from the stored procedure.

Use the ExecuteNonQuery Method of the Command Object

This sample uses the ExecuteNonQuery method to run the query and to return the parameter values. ExecuteNonQuery also returns the number of records that are affected after the query runs. However, ExecuteNonQuery does not return any rows or columns from the stored procedure.

The ExecuteNonQuery method is most useful when you use INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements if you only have to know how many rows are changed. In a stored procedure in which you are using only a SELECT statement, you receive -1 because no rows are affected by the query.
  1. Create the following stored procedure on the computer that is running SQL Server:
    Create Procedure TestProcedure3
    (
      @au_idIN varchar (11),
      @au_fnam varchar (30)
    )
    
    As
    /* set nocount on */ 
    Update authors set au_fname = @au_fnam
    where au_id = @au_idin	
    return (5)
    					
  2. Create a new Visual C# .NET Windows Application project.
  3. Use the using statement on the System and the System.Data namespaces so that you do not have to qualify declarations in those namespaces later in your code. Add this code to the top of the Form code module. Make sure that you copy only the code for the provider that you have chosen.SQL Client
    using System.Data.SqlClient;
    					
    OLE DB Data Provider
    using System.Data.OleDb;
    					
  4. Replace the code below the private Form1_Load event in the Form1 code module with the following code:SQL Client
    string strRowAffect;
    SqlConnection PubsConn = new SqlConnection 
       ("Data Source=server;integrated Security=sspi;" + 
       "initial catalog=pubs;");
    SqlCommand testCMD = new SqlCommand 
       ("TestProcedure3", PubsConn);
    
    testCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    
    SqlParameter RetVal = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("RetVal", SqlDbType.Int);
    RetVal.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;
    SqlParameter IdIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@au_idIN", SqlDbType.VarChar, 11);
    IdIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    SqlParameter FnameIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@au_fnam", SqlDbType.VarChar, 30);
    FnameIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    
    IdIn.Value = "213-46-8915";
    FnameIn.Value = "Marjorie";
    
    PubsConn.Open();
    
    strRowAffect =testCMD.ExecuteNonQuery ().ToString() ;
    
    Console.WriteLine("Number of Rows: " + strRowAffect );
    Console.WriteLine("Return Value: " + RetVal.Value);
    					
    OLE DB Data Provider
    int intRowAffected;
    OleDbConnection PubsConn = new OleDbConnection 
       ("Provider=SQLOLEDB;Data Source=server;" + 
       "integrated Security=sspi;initial catalog=pubs;");
    OleDbCommand testCMD = new OleDbCommand 
       ("TestProcedure3", PubsConn);
    
    testCMD.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    
    OleDbParameter RetVal = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("RetVal", OleDbType.Integer);
    RetVal.Direction = ParameterDirection.ReturnValue;
    OleDbParameter IdIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add 
       ("@au_idIN", OleDbType.VarChar, 11);
    IdIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    OleDbParameter FnameIn = testCMD.Parameters.Add
       ("@au_fname", OleDbType.VarChar, 30);
    FnameIn.Direction = ParameterDirection.Input;
    
    IdIn.Value = "213-46-8915";
    FnameIn.Value = "Marjorie";
    
    PubsConn.Open();
    intRowAffected = testCMD.ExecuteNonQuery();
    
    Console.WriteLine("Number of Rows affected: " + intRowAffected);
    Console.WriteLine(RetVal.Value);
    					
  5. Modify the connection string for the Connection object to point to the computer that is running SQL Server.
  6. Run the code. The Output window displays the number of affected rows (intRowAffect) and the value of the return parameter.

REFERENCES

For additional information, visit the following MSDN Web sites:
Introduction to the .NET Framework Class Library

Retrieving Data Using the DataReader

Properties

Article ID: 310070 - Last Review: June 12, 2012 - Revision: 3.0
APPLIES TO
  • Microsoft ADO.NET 1.1
  • Microsoft Visual C# .NET 2002 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Visual C# .NET 2003 Standard Edition
Keywords: 
kbhowtomaster kbsqlclient kbstoredproc kbsystemdata KB310070

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