How to perform maintenance and ancillary tasks after a UNIX-to-Windows migration

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SUMMARY

This article is one of a series of articles that provide detailed information for performing a migration from UNIX to Windows.

The articles in this series include the following articles:
324215 How to prepare for a UNIX-to-Windows migration
323970 How to prepare the target server for a UNIX-to-Windows migration
324213 How to migrate Apache settings and configure IIS in a UNIX-to-Windows migration
324538 How to migrate Web site data in a UNIX-to-Windows migration
324216 How to secure IIS in a UNIX-to-Windows migration
324539 How to perform maintenance and ancillary tasks after a UNIX-to-Windows migration
324217 How to test and performance tune after a UNIX-to-Windows migration

How to Set Up DNS Servers in a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

The DNS server is as important as the Web server itself because it provides the client computers with the easiest method of identifying and connecting to the server. The Microsoft DNS server is integrated with Windows Active Directory and can import existing DNS records for another server. This behavior makes the migration of the DNS data from one server to another server much simpler.

For additional information set up and manage a DNS server in Windows, click the following article numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
300202 How to configure DNS for Internet access in Windows 2000
301192 How to migrate an existing domain name system infrastructure from a BIND-based server to a Windows 2000-based domain name system server in Windows 2000

How to Set Up an FTP Service in a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is typically used on sites that provide downloadable material. FTP is a more convenient and reliable method for file distribution. By default, UNIX includes an FTP server and you can integrate the service in the Web site layout to provide both Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and FTP access to files. Internet Information Services (IIS) includes an FTP virtual server component to provide similar functionality.

For additional information about how to set up and manage an FTP server within Windows, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
300662 How to set up an FTP server in Windows 2000

How to Start Up and Shut Down Individual Web Sites

In Apache, all Web sites that are defined in a single configuration file are served by the same group of server processes. If you want to quickly take down one of these sites, you must take them all down. In IIS, you have more control and can start or stop and pause or resume individual Web sites without affecting any other sites that are hosted on the same server.

For additional information about how to startup and shutdown individual Web site, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324090 How to start and stop individual Web sites in IIS

How to Customize the Log File Settings

Reporting on the people and use on your site is an important part of the management and monitoring of your site. You can customize the format and content of Apache log files and you can create individual log files for all of the different types of information that are recorded during a Web site access. Alternatively, IIS uses a single file to hold all the information (you can customize this file). IIS also provides methods for limiting the sections of a Web site that are recorded in a log file at a much finer level than Apache.

How to View and Report from Log Files

Apache records the accesses and errors for a specific site in two separate files. You can view these standard text files by using any text editor. However, to report on a file, you have to remove it from active service, which requires you to restart the Apache server. You can configure IIS to automatically rotate access logs. These files are also in standard text format. If you use IIS, it is easier to access the previous period's logs because you do not need to reset the log system.

For additional information how to view and report from log files, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324091 How to view and report from log files

How to Manage Bandwidth Restrictions

You can limit the bandwidth, throughput, and other performance parameters of IIS on a Web site-by-Web site basis.

For additional information about how to manage bandwidth restrictions, click the following article numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
308186 How to optimize Web server performance in Windows 2000
303817 How to set up TCP/IP for network load balancing in Windows 2000

How to Install and Configure User Name Mapping Service for a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

UNIX and Windows domains have different user and group identities, even when there is an exact match in user names. You can use the User Name Mapping service to map Windows security identifiers (SIDs) to UNIX user identifiers (UIDs) and group identifiers (GIDs) regardless of whether the identifiers are the different. Additionally, the User Name Mapping service supports mapping multiple Windows accounts to a single UNIX account. This behavior simplifies account management for Windows users who must have access to UNIX resources during the migration.

For additional information about how to install and configure User Name Mapping Service, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324073 How to configure User Name Mapping service

How to Install and Configure Gateway for NFS

You can use Gateway for NFS to set up a single server to provide access to NFS resources on your UNIX computer without having to install any software on other Windows clients or on the UNIX servers. This functionality can facilitate the migration from UNIX to Windows by providing ongoing access to your UNIX resources as you stage your migration.

Setting Up Gateway for NFS to Provide UNIX File Services to Windows Clients

You may find it easier to migrate files from an existing UNIX server to a Windows server if you use Network File System (NFS) instead of FTP to move the files. If you install Gateway for NFS on a Windows server, you can provide access to your NFS resources without having to load any additional software on other Windows clients. Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0 uses the Microsoft Installer for installation. As a result, you can install individual modules of the product from the command line. For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324085 How to set up Gateway for NFS to provide UNIX file services to Windows clients

Sharing UNIX File Systems by Using Gateway for NFS

You may find it easier to migrate files from an existing UNIX server to a Windows server if you use Network File System (NFS) instead of FTP to move the files. If you use Gateway for NFS on a Windows-based server, you can provide access to your NFS resources without having to load any additional software on other Windows clients or on the UNIX or Linux server.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324087 How to share UNIX file systems using Gateway for NFS

Setting the NFS Permissions for a File or Folder by Using Gateway for NFS

NFS uses permissions that are different from the discretionary access control list (DACL) in Windows. However, you can use the Windows Services for UNIX's Gateway for NFS functionality to change the permission attributes of the underlying file or folder by using the standard UNIX and NFS permissions attributes.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324544 How to set the NFS permissions for a file or folder using Gateway for NFS

How to Configure Default Permissions in Gateway for NFS for a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

The default permissions for all Gateway for NFS-shared file systems determine the initial permissions mask for files that are created on NFS resources that are shared to Windows clients by using Gateway for NFS. You can set this default permission globally by using either the Windows Services for UNIX Administration Microsoft Management Console (MMC) or by using the NFSAdmin utility from the command line. The permissions set the starting umask for any NFS resources that are created through Gateway for NFS, but the NFS permissions can be later changed by users with appropriate level of authority on the UNIX system.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324540 How to configure default permissions in Gateway for NFS for a UNIX-to-Windows migration

How to Install and Configure Server for NFS

NFS is the native UNIX protocol for sharing of files and folders on the network. You can use Server for NFS, which is included in Windows Services for UNIX, to share your Windows file system resources to UNIX and Linux clients by using NFS. Server for NFS includes full support for NFS version 3. This functionality facilitates interoperability and migration in a mixed environment. If you are using Windows, you can share files to UNIX clients by using either the familiar Windows Explorer interface or the Windows Nfsshare.exe command line utility.

Setting Up and Configuring Server for NFS to Provide Windows File Services to UNIX Clients

NFS is the native UNIX protocol for sharing of files and folders on the network. Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0 includes the Server for NFS functionality that provides a full NFS version 3 server that you can use to provide file services to UNIX and Linux clients from Windows computers. Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0 uses the Microsoft Installer for installation. As a result, you can install individual modules of the product from the command line.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324085 How to set up Gateway for NFS to provide UNIX file services to Windows clients

Sharing Windows Folders Through Server for NFS

NFS is the native UNIX protocol for sharing of files and folders on the network. You can use Server for NFS, which is included in Windows Services for UNIX, to share your Windows file system resources to UNIX and Linux clients by using NFS. Server for NFS includes full support for NFS version 3. This functionality facilitates interoperability and migration in a mixed environment. If you are using Windows, you can share files to UNIX clients by using either the familiar Windows Explorer interface or the Windows Nfsshare.exe command line utility.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324089 How to share Windows folders by using Server for NFS

Configuring Server for NFS Logging in a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

Server for NFS supports a rich set of logging settings that you can use to tune the logging level and the type of logging. You can configure Server for NFS so that events are logged either to the Windows event log or to a pure ASCII file, which you can report from or modify at a later time. Both the command-line and GUI configuration are supported.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324072 How to configure Server for NFS logging in Windows Services for UNIX

Managing File Locking on Server for NFS

NFS servers process and assign locks on files based on requests from NFS clients. The server waits for a designated period when a connection is broken for the client to re-establish the connection. If the client does not reconnect in that time period, Server for NFS releases the lock. Additionally, if you are an administrator, you can manually release all the locks that are held by a client. You can perform locking tasks by using either the familiar Windows Explorer interface or the Windows NFSAdmin.exe command line utility.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324220 How to manage file locking on Server for NFS

Configuring Performance Parameters in Server for NFS

Server for NFS has a number of performance-related parameters that you can use to tailor Server for NFS to support the site efficiently. You can set server parameters, authentication parameters, and parameters for how file names are handled.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324219 How to configure performance settings in Server for NFS

Configuring File Name Character Translation in Server for NFS to Support a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

Both UNIX and Windows have a set of valid file name characters; however, these sets are different. If you do not turn on and configure character translation, Server for NFS cannot create some value UNIX file names and an error may occur when a user attempts to create the file. For example, characters that are supported in file names on UNIX that are not supported in Windows include the colon (:), the question mark (?), and the asterisk (*).

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324218 How to configure file name character translation in Server for NFS to Support a UNIX-to-Windows migration

Using Client Groups in Server for NFS to Manage Permissions During a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

If you are an administrator, you can use Server for NFS to set the mount permissions for NFS shares for groups of client computers. Server for NFS makes it easier to manage mount permissions. You can make the NFS export (share) available as a read-only share or a read-write share, or you can deny access for a group of computers. You can also set root access by group.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324221 How to use client groups in Server for NFS to Manage permissions during a UNIX-to-Windows migration

How to Install and Configure Print Services for UNIX for a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, and Microsoft Windows XP include TCP/IP based printing as part of the standard product. You can use Print Services for UNIX to configure the Windows computer to behave as a Line Printer Daemon (LPD) and a Remote Line Printer client. You can use Print Services for UNIX to manage print jobs from remote UNIX clients or send print jobs to UNIX servers.

For additional information how to install and configure Print Services for UNIX, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324078 How to install and configure Print Services for UNIX

How to Install Server for PCNFS to Support Windows Clients on a UNIX Network

Windows clients that are using Client for NFS can authenticate to the UNIX NFS server by using Network Information Service (NIS) or PCNFSD. When an NFS client accesses files on an NFS server, the User Name Mapping service maps the Windows user and group SID to a UNIX UID and GID. This identifier is authenticated by PCNFS and access to the files is provided based on the authenticated UID or GID. Windows Services for UNIX includes Server for PCNFS to support PCNFS authentication.

For additional information how to install Server for PCNFS, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324084 How to install Server for PCNFS to support Windows clients on a UNIX network

Installing and Configuring Server for NIS

NIS is a native UNIX protocol that simplify account management across multiple UNIX computers. Server for NIS, part of Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0, provides a full implementation of NIS Master Server that is fully integrated into Active Directory.

Installing Server for NIS for Authentication During a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

Windows Services for UNIX provides a full Active Directory-based implementation of NIS. NIS is used by UNIX-based computers to provide a centralized database for a variety of information about the network and a central account database for User and Group information and authentication. This functionality is based on a master/subordinate server relationship, where subordinate servers can read the available information and authenticate based on this information. However, the actual changes must take place on the master NIS server before they are propagated to the subordinate NIS servers.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324083 How to install Server for NIS on Windows for UNIX-to-Windows migration

Configuring Server for NIS for a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

Server for NIS integrates the NIS master role into Active Directory. As a result, you can migrate an existing NIS domain to Active Directory or create a fresh new NIS domain. You can use either the MMC interface or the Nisadmin.exe utility from the command line to administer the NIS domain.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324541 How to configure Server for NIS for a UNIX-to-Windows migration

How to Migrate Existing NIS Maps to Server for NIS in a UNIX-to-Windows Migration

Server for NIS integrates the NIS master role into Active Directory. As a result, you can migrate an existing NIS domain to Active Directory. You can use either the MMC interface or the Nisadmin.exe utility and Nismap.exe utility from the command line to administer the NIS domain.

324543 HOW to migrate existing NIS maps to Server for NIS in a UNIX-to-Windows migration

Installing Password Synchronization

Services for UNIX version 3.0 provides the necessary programs and services to support bi-directional password synchronization between Windows and UNIX and Linux computers. Password changes can originate from either Windows or UNIX computers, and the changes are propagated to all computers that are covered by password synchronization. Passwords are transferred over the network in encrypted form; passwords are never transferred in plain text form.

Installing Password Synchronization on a Windows Host

Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0 provides the necessary programs and services to support bi-directional password synchronization between Windows and UNIX and Linux computers. Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0 uses the Microsoft Installer for installation. As a result, you can install individual modules of the product from the command line.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324082 How to install password synchronization on a Windows host

How to Install Password Synchronization on a UNIX Host

Windows Services for UNIX provides precompiled binaries to support password synchronization on supported UNIX and Linux hosts. The following list contains the supported hosts for Windows Services for UNIX 3.0:
  • HP-UX 11
  • Sun Solaris (sparc) 7.0
  • IBM AIX 4.3.3 (Windows to UNIX only)
  • Red Hat Linux 7.0
For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324542 How to install password synchronization on a UNIX host for a UNIX-to-Windows migration

How to Install Interix

The Interix subsystem provides a fully POSIX-compliant environment that runs as a native subsystem in the Windows kernel. It includes both the Korn Shell and the C Shell and over 350 command line utilities. If you install the Interix Software Development Kit (SDK), you have full support for more than 1,900 UNIX functions. Windows Services for UNIX version 3.0 uses the Microsoft Installer for installation. As a result, you can install individual modules of the product from the command line.

For additional information about how to install Interix, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324081 How to install Interix

Configuring Interix Daemons

The Interix subsystem provides a fully-POSIX compliant environment that runs as a native subsystem in the Windows kernel. It includes more than 350 UNIX utilities and it also includes an inetd daemon to handle a variety of network protocols, including a telnet daemon (server) and the Remote Shell protocol that forms the basis for the "r-utilities." The r utilities include rsh, rlogin, and other utilities.

Enabling the Interix R-Utilities

The Win32 Remote Shell service uses a default shell of Cmd.exe, but the Interix rshd daemon uses the user's default shell, either /bin/ksh or /bin/csh. Because only a single Remote Shell server can listen on port 514 (the remote shell port), if you want to run the Interix rshd, you must first disable the Win32 based Remote Shell server, then enable and start the Interix server.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324076 How to turn on the Interix R utilities

How to Enable the Interix Telnet Daemon

The Win32 telnet service uses a default shell of Cmd.exe, but the Interix telnet daemon uses the user's default shell, either /bin/ksh or /bin/csh. Because only a single telnet server can listen on port 23 (the telnet port), if you want to run the Interix telnetd, you must first disable the Win32-based telnet server, and then enable and start the Interix server.
324077 How to turn on the Interix Telnet daemon

How to Use Client for NFS to Set the NFS Permissions for a File or Folder

NFS uses permissions that are different from the discretionary access control list (DACL) in Windows. However, you can use the Windows Services for UNIX Client for NFS functionality to change the permission attributes of the underlying file or folder by using the standard UNIX and NFS permissions attributes.

For additional information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
324546 How to use Client for NFS to set the NFS permissions for a file or folder

REFERENCES

For more information about migrating from UNIX to Windows, please refer to the following Microsoft Web site:
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb463224.aspx

Properties

Article ID: 324539 - Last Review: October 30, 2006 - Revision: 4.3
APPLIES TO
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Edition
  • Microsoft Small Business Server 2000 Standard Edition
  • Microsoft Internet Information Services 5.0
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