NOTE: The LDP tool is in the Windows 2000 Support Tools. If this tool is not installed, you can install it from the Microsoft Windows 2000 CD-ROM. The file path is:
Connecting and Binding to the DirectoryTo query most directories by using the LDP utility, you must first connect to the directory and then bind to the directory to authenticate yourself to the directory.
Connecting to the DirectoryIf you click Connect on the Connections menu, a dialog box is displayed in which you can type a directory server name. If you click OK without specifying a server, LDP connects you to the last server that you accessed, or your logon server (LOGONSERVER). To determine your logon server, type SET at a command prompt.
After you connect, the directory sends "RootDSE" information about itself. The following is a truncated example of RootDSE information:
ld = ldap_open("win2000-dc-01", 389);
Established connection to win2000-dc-01.
Retrieving base DSA information...
Result <0>: (null)
Getting 1 entries:
1> currentTime: 2/24/2000 20:30:12 Pacific Standard Time Pacific Daylight Time;
3> namingContexts: DC=redmond,DC=wa,DC=microsoft,DC=com; CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=wa,DC=microsoft,DC=com; CN=Configuration,DC=wa,DC=microsoft,DC=com;
1> defaultNamingContext: DC=redmond,DC=wa,DC=microsoft,DC=com;
1> rootDomainNamingContext: DC=corp,DC=microsoft,DC=com;
2> supportedLDAPVersion: 3; 2;
1> dnsHostName: WIN2000-DC-01.redmond.wa.microsoft.com;
NOTE: No RootDSE information is generated if you disable the Auto Base DN Query option. To disable the Auto Base DN Query option, click General in the Options dialog box, and then disable the Auto Base DN Query option. If you disable this option, you also prevent LDP from automatically connecting to your logon server.
Binding to the DirectoryIf you click Bind on the Connections menu, you can authenticate yourself to the directory. When you connect to the directory you establish communication, but you have not presented any authenticating credentials. Most directories provide very limited access to their information until you authenticate yourself by using the Bind option on the Connections menu.
NOTE: In the Connect dialog box, if you click to select the Connectionless check box, and you are unable to bind to the directory and you receive the following error message:
An LDAP directory is organized in a hierarchy that is similar to the hierarchy of folders in a file system. The following entry is similar to a file system path:
Viewing the Directory Tree StructureOn the View menu, click Tree. You are prompted to supply a base Distinguished Name (DN). If the Auto Base DN Query option is enabled, click OK to connect to the defaultNamingContext as your relative tree root. You can also type a base DN, or copy and paste one from the RootDSE information.
The directory tree is displayed in the left pane of the LDP utility, and you can expand the directory tree to look at subcontainers and objects. When you double-click an object in the directory tree, the attribute information is displayed in the results pane on the right. Results are formatted differently depending on whether the Value Parsing option is set to String or Binary. (To set the Value Parsing option, click General in the Options dialog box, and then change the Value Parsing option.) To browse most attributes, the String setting provides more readable formatting. With string formatting, some attributes may be displayed as the following:
Older results scroll out of the results buffer to make room for new information. Under Buffer Size, increase the Page value to retain more information. (To change the Buffer Size option, click General in the Options dialog box, and then under Buffer Size, change the Page value as necessary.) You can save the current results as plain text by clicking Connections, and then clicking Save As.
You can clear your search results buffer by clicking Connections, and then clicking New. This does not unbind you from your current server.
Searching for ObjectsIf you want to export the entire contents of a large directory, the LDP utility is not the most effective utility. You can use the LDIFDE utility to export entries from Active Directory. For additional information about the LDIFDE utility, click the article number below to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
When you click Search on the Browse menu, a dialog box is displayed in which you can set the Base DN, Filter, and Scope settings for your query.
The Base DN setting defines where in the directory tree the search begins. If you use the file system folder analogy, the Base DN setting defines the subfolder at which the search begins. The most commonly used base DN for an Active Directory search is the CN=Users,DC=.... container.
NOTE: You can cut and paste from RootDSE information or other results information to avoid typing long base DN values.
The Scope setting determines how far down in the directory tree to search. By default, the Scope is set to One Level, which is like searching the current folder in a file system. A one level search does not include the base DN object itself. To see the attributes of the base DN object, you must set the Scope to Base, or double-click the Base object in the directory tree view. If you set the Scope to Subtree, it is like searching the current folder and all of the subfolders of a file system.
The Filter box allows you to construct queries. The following table lists the most commonly used LDAP query operators.
~=approximately equal to
>=equal to or greater than
<=less than or equal to
All of the query filters are enclosed by opening and closing parentheses. Complex filters often contain several nested levels of parentheses. You must be sure that you supply all of the required parentheses, or your search does not work.
The logical AND and OR operators always refer to two or more search terms, and are placed before the terms that they affect. A simple visual rule may help you use AND and OR correctly; AND and OR should always be immediately followed by an open parenthesis, rather than placed directly next to an attribute name.
For example, if you want to search for all of the users who have first names of John AND last names of either Smith OR Jones, the filter is similar to the following:
Queries also support asterisk wildcards. The following search returns all of the users who have surnames that start with the letter J:
You can use a wildcard by itself to test for the existence or absence of a given attribute. If you want to find all of the users who do not have an Exchange Server mailbox, you can find them by using the following query because these users lack an msExchHomeServerName value:
If you are interested in only a particular attribute or few attributes, you can filter the rest so that they are not displayed in the results window by clicking Options in the Search dialog box. In Options, list the attributes that you want to be displayed, and separate each with a semicolon. For example:
NOTE: The LDP utility does not separate the objects that are returned by a query with a blank line. When you look through search results, look for the leading >> characters to indicate the beginning of the next object in the list.
Discovering Attribute NamesThe schema lists all of the possible attributes that objects in the directory can have, and defines their relationships. The base DN of the Schema container is listed with the RootDSE information. If you open a directory tree view with this DN, you can discover interesting attributes and verify naming (for example, whether the home directory attribute name is HomeDirectory or Home-Directory).
If you do not have rights to view the schema, you can browse through all of the attributes on random objects to get a good idea of the commonly used attributes for a particular directory.
Artikelnummer: 255602 – Letzte Überarbeitung: 21.02.2007 – Revision: 1