Keyboard shortcuts are keys or combinations of keys that provide an alternate way to do something you'd typically do with a mouse.
Here are several common keyboard shortcuts:
Copy: Ctrl + C
Paste: Ctrl + V
Maximize Window: F11 or Windows logo key + Up Arrow
Taskview: Windows logo key + Tab
Shutdown options: Windows Logo Key + X
Depending on your hardware, you may use Windows Logo Key + PrtScn to take a screenshot, or use Fn + Windows logo key + Space Bar.