Assume that you use SQL Server 2017. When you install SqlLocalDb.msi on a machine, the SQL patch does not update the Local DB files. However, when you run the SQL patch again, you notice that it updates the Local DB files correctly.
Microsoft has confirmed that this is a problem in the Microsoft products that are listed in the "Applies to" section.
This issue is fixed in the following cumulative update for SQL Server:
About cumulative updates for SQL Server:
Each new cumulative update for SQL Server contains all the hotfixes and all the security fixes that were included with the previous cumulative update. Check out the latest cumulative updates for SQL Server: