# The Windows 98 Config.txt File

### Summary

This article contains a copy of the information in the Config.txt file included with Windows 98. This file is located in the Windows folder after you install Windows 98.

`------------------------------------------------------       Microsoft Windows 98 README for          MS-DOS Config.sys Commands                April 1998            ------------------------------------------------------(c) Copyright Microsoft Corporation, 1998This document provides complementary or late-breaking information to supplement the Microsoft Windows 98 documentation.------------------------How to Use This Document------------------------To view Config.txt on-screen in Notepad, maximize the Notepad window.To print Config.txt, open the file in Notepad or another word processor, then on the File menu, click Print.In syntax lines, lowercase text signifies replaceable parameters and uppercase text must be typed as it appears.NOTE: The Msdosdrv.txt file contains more Help for MS-DOS commands. Also you can type the name of the command at the command prompt, followed by a slash and question mark (/?). For example: CHKDSK /?If you have the Windows 98 CD, you can get additional help on MS-DOS commands, including syntax and examples. You can load the MS-DOS 6 help file by browsing the \tools\oldmsdos menu, and then clicking Help.com.--------CONTENTS--------ACCDATEBREAKBUFFERS/BUFFERSHIGHDEVICEDEVICEHIGHDOSDRIVPARMFCBS/FCBSHIGHFILES/FILESHIGHINSTALL/INSTALLHIGHLASTDRIVE/LASTDRIVEHIGHNUMLOCKREMSETSHELLSTACKS/STACKSHIGHSWITCHES-------------------------------ACCDATE=======For each hard disk, this command specifies whether to record the date that files are last accessed. Last access dates are turned off for all drives when your computer is started in safe mode, and are not maintained on floppy disks by default.Syntax    ACCDATE=drive1+|- [drive2+|-]...Parametersdrive1, drive 2...    Specifies the drive letter.+|-    Specify a plus sign (+) to indicate that     the last access date should be maintained     for files on the drive. Specify a minus     sign (-) to indicate that the last access     date should not be maintained for files.BREAK=====This command sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking. You can use this command at the command prompt or in your CONFIG.SYS file.You can press CTRL+C to stop a program or an activity, such as file sorting. Typically, MS-DOS checks for CTRL+C only while it reads from the keyboard or writes to the screen or a printer. If you set BREAK to ON, you extend CTRL+C checking to other functions, such as disk read and write operations.Syntax    BREAK [ON|OFF]To display the current BREAK setting at the command prompt, use the following syntax:    BREAKIn your CONFIG.SYS file, use the following syntax:    BREAK=ON|OFFParameterON|OFF    Turns extended CTRL+C checking on or off.BUFFERS/BUFFERSHIGH===================This command allocates memory for a specified number of disk buffers when your system starts. Use the BUFFERSHIGH command to load the buffers in the upper memory area. You can use these commands only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    BUFFERS=n[,m]    BUFFERSHIGH=n[,m]Parametersn    Specifies the number of disk buffers. The value of     n must be in the range 1 through 99. The default     is 30.m    Specifies the number of buffers in the secondary     buffer cache. The value of m must be in the range     0 through 8. The default is 0 (no secondary cache     buffers).If you specify an invalid value for n or m, BUFFERs uses the default settings.DEVICE======This command loads into memory the device driver you specify. You can use this command only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    DEVICE=[drive:][path]filename [dd-parameters]Parameters[drive:][path]filename    Specifies the location and name of the device driver     you want to load.[dd-parameters]    Specifies any command-line information required by     the device driver.DEVICEHIGH==========This command loads the device driver you specify into the upper memory area. Loading a device driver into the upper memory area frees more bytes of conventional memory for other programs. If upper memory is not available, the DEVICEHIGH command functions just like the DEVICE command.You can use this command only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    DEVICEHIGH [drive:][path]filename [dd-parameters]To specify the region(s) of memory into which to load the device driver, use the following syntax:    DEVICEHIGH [[/L:region1[,minsize1][;region2[,minsize2] [/S]]=    [drive:][path]filename [dd-parameters]Parameters[drive:][path]filename    Specifies the location and name of the device     driver you want to load into the upper memory area.dd-parameters    Specifies any command-line information required by     the device driver.Switches/L:region1[,minsize1][;region2[,minsize2]...    Specifies one or more regions of memory into which     the device driver is loaded. By default, MS-DOS loads     the driver into the largest free upper memory block     (UMB) and makes all other UMBs available for the driver's     use. You can use the /L switch to load the device driver     into a specific region of memory or to specify which     region(s) the driver can use.    To load the driver into the largest block in a     specific region of upper memory, specify the region     number after the /L switch. For example, to load the     driver into the largest free block in region 4, you     would type /L:4. To list the free areas of memory,     type MEM /F at the command prompt.    When loaded with the /L switch, a device driver     can use only the specified memory region. Some     device drivers use more than one area of memory;     for those drivers, you can specify more than one     region. To find out how a particular device driver     uses memory, issue the MEM /M command and specify     the device-driver name as an argument. To specify    two or more regions, separate the block numbers     with a semicolon (;). For example, to use blocks     2 and 3, you would type /L:2;3.    Typically, MS-DOS loads a driver into a UMB in     the specified region only if that region contains     a UMB larger than the driver's load size (usually     equal to the size of the executable program file).     If the driver requires more memory while running     than it does when loaded, you can use the minsize     parameter to ensure that the driver will not be    loaded into a UMB that is too small for it. If you     specify a value for minsize, MS-DOS loads the driver     into that region only if it contains a UMB that is     larger than both the driver's load size and the     minsize value./S    Shrinks the UMB to its minimum size while the     driver is loading. Using this switch makes the     most efficient use of memory. This switch is    generally used only by the MemMaker program,     which can analyze a device driver's memory use     to determine whether the /S switch can safely be    used when loading that driver. This switch can     be used only in conjunction with the /L switch     and affects only UMBs for which a minimum size     was specified.DOS====This command specifies that MS-DOS should maintain a link to the upper memory area, load part of itself into the high memory area (HMA), or both. You can use this command only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    DOS=HIGH|LOW[,UMB|,NOUMB][,AUTO|,NOAUTO]    DOS=[HIGH,|LOW,]UMB|NOUMB[,AUTO|,NOAUTO]      DOS=[HIGH,|LOW,][UMB,|NOUMB,]AUTO|NOAUTOParametersUMB|NOUMB    Specifies whether MS-DOS should manage upper     memory blocks (UMBs) created by a UMB provider     such as Emm386.exe. The UMB parameter specifies     that MS-DOS should manage UMBs, if they exist.     The NOUMB parameter specifies that MS-DOS should     not manage UMBs. The default setting is NOUMB.HIGH|LOW    Specifies whether MS-DOS should attempt to load     a part of itself into the HMA (HIGH) or keep all     of MS-DOS in conventional memory (LOW). The default     setting is LOW.AUTO|NOAUTO    Specifies whether MS-DOS should automatically load     Himem.sys, Ifshlp.sys, Dblbuff.sys, and Setver.exe     device drivers if they are not explicitly loaded in     your Config.sys file. The default setting, AUTO,     automatically loads these device drivers. The AUTO     setting also automatically uses the BUFFERSHIGH,     FILESHIGH, FCBSHIGH, LASTDRIVEHIGH, and STACKSHIGH    commands, whether the -HIGH form of the command is     used or not. If you specify the NOAUTO parameter, you     must load these device drivers and use the -HIGH form of     the above commands in order to take advantage of them.DRIVPARM========This command defines parameters for devices such as disk and tape drives when you start MS-DOS. You can use this command only in your Config.sys file.The DRIVPARM command modifies the parameters of an existing physical drive. It does not create a new logical drive. The settings specified in theDRIVPARM command override the driver definitions for any previous block device.Syntax    DRIVPARM=/D:number [/C] [/F:factor] [/H:heads] [/I] [/N]     [/S:sectors] [/T:tracks]Switches/D:number    Specifies the physical drive number. Values for number     must be in the range 0 through 255. For example, drive     number 0 = drive A, 1 = drive B, 2 = drive C, and so on./C    Specifies that the drive can detect whether the drive     door is closed./F:factor    Specifies the drive type. The following table shows the     valid values for factor and a brief description of each.     The default value is 2.    0        160K/180K or 320K/360K    1        1.2 megabyte (MB)    2        720K (3.5-inch disk)    5        Hard disk    6        Tape    7        1.44 MB (3.5-inch disk)    8        Read/write optical disk    9        2.88 MB (3.5-inch disk)/H:heads    Specifies the maximum number of heads. Values for     heads must be in the range 1 through 99. The default     value depends on the value you specify for /F:factor./I    Specifies an electronically compatible 3.5-inch     floppy disk drive. Use the /I switch if your     computer's ROM BIOS does not support 3.5-inch     floppy disk drives./N    Specifies a nonremovable block device./S:sectors    Specifies the number of sectors per track that     the block device supports. Values for sectors     must be in the range 1 through 99. The default     value depends on the value you specify for /F:factor./T:tracks    Specifies the number of tracks per side that the     block device supports. The default value depends on     the value you specify for /F:factor.FCBS/FCBSHIGH=============This command specifies the number of file control blocks (FCBs) that MS-DOS can have open at the same time. Use the FCBSHIGH command to load the FCBs in the upper memory area. You can use these commands only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    FCBS=x    FCBSHIGH=xParameterx    Specifies the number of file control blocks that     MS-DOS can have open at one time. Valid values for     x are in the range 1 through 255. The default    value is 4.FILES/FILESHIGH===============This command specifies the number of files that MS-DOS can access at one time. Use the FILESHIGH command to load the command in the upper memory area. You can use these commands only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    FILES=x    FILESHIGH=xParameterx    Specifies the number of files that MS-DOS can     access at one time. Valid values for x are in     the range 8 through 255. The default value is 8.INSTALL/INSTALLHIGH===================This command loads a memory-resident program into memory when you start MS-DOS. Use the INSTALLHIGH command to load the memory-resident program into the uppermemory area. You can use these commands only in your Config.sys file.Memory-resident programs stay in memory as long as your computer is on. They can be used even when other programs are active. You can use the INSTALLor INSTALLHIGH command to load MS-DOS memory-resident programs.Syntax    INSTALL=[drive:][path]filename [command-parameters]    INSTALLHIGH=[drive:][path]filename [command-parameters]Parameters[drive:][path]filename    Specifies the location and name of the     memory-resident program you want to run.command-parameters    Specifies parameters for the program you     specify for filename.LASTDRIVE/LASTDRIVEHIGH=======================This command specifies the maximum number of drives you can access. Use the LASTDRIVEHIGH command to load the LASTDRIVE data structures in the upper memory area. You can use these commands only in your Config.sys file.The value you specify represents the last valid drive that MS-DOS is to recognize.Syntax    LASTDRIVE=x    LASTDRIVEHIGH=xParameterx    Specifies a drive letter in the range A through Z.NUMLOCK========This command specifies whether the NUM LOCK key is set to ON or OFF when your computer starts. You can use this command only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    NUMLOCK=[ON|OFF]ParametersON|OFF    If set to ON, turns on the NUM LOCK key when MS-DOS     displays the startup menu. If set to OFF, turns     NUM LOCK off.REM===This command enables you to include comments in a batch file or in your Config.sys file. The REM command is also useful for disabling commands. You can use a semicolon (;) instead of the REM command in your Config.sys file, but not in batch files.Syntax    REM [string]Parametersstring    Specifies any string of characters, for example,     the command you want to disable or the comment     you want to include.SET===This command displays, sets, or removes MS-DOS environment variables.You use environment variables to control the behavior of some batch files and programs and to control the way MS-DOS appears and works. The SETcommand is often used in the Autoexec.bat or Config.sys files to set environment variables each time you start MS-DOS.Syntax    SET variable=[string]To display the current environment settings at the command prompt, use the following syntax:    SETParametersvariable    Specifies the variable you want to set or modify.string    Specifies the string you want to associate     with the specified variable.SHELL=====This command specifies the name and location of the command interpreter you want MS-DOS to use. You can use this command only in your Config.sys file.If you want to use your own command interpreter instead of Command.com, you can specify its name by adding a SHELL command to your Config.sys file.Syntax    SHELL=[[drive:]path]filename [parameters]Parameters[[drive:]path]filename    Specifies the location and name of the command     interpreter you want MS-DOS to use.parameters    Specifies any command-line parameters or switches     that can be used with the specified command interpreter.STACKS/STACKSHIGH=================This command supports the dynamic use of data stacks to handle hardware interrupts. Use the STACKSHIGH command to load the stacks in the upper memory area. You can use these commands only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    STACKS=n,s    STACKSHIGH=n,sParametersn    Specifies the number of stacks. Valid values for     n are 0 and numbers in the range 8 through 64.s    Specifies the size (in bytes) of each stack.     Valid values for s are 0 and numbers in the range     32 through 512.SWITCHES=========This command specifies special options in MS-DOS. Use this command only in your Config.sys file.Syntax    SWITCHES= /F /K /N /E[:n]Switches/K    Forces an enhanced keyboard to behave like a     conventional keyboard./N    Prevents you from using the F5 or F8 key to bypass     startup commands. (SWITCHES /N does not prevent you     from pressing CTRL+F5 or CTRL+F8 to bypass Drvspace.bin     or Dblspace.bin; to prevent this, use the D**SPACE /SWITCHES    command to add the SWITCHES /N setting to your     D**space.ini file.)/E[:n]    Used without the :n parameter, indicates that     Io.sys should suppress the automatic relocation     of EBIOS. (Automatic relocation of EBIOS    increases the conventional memory available to     MS-DOS-based programs.) Supressing automatic     relocation results in less conventional memory     available to MS-DOS-based programs. Use the /E     switch with the n parameter to relocate N bytes     of EBIOS to low memory, where n is the number of     bytes to be relocated. The minimum value for n     is 48 and the maximum value is 1024. The number     specified is always rounded up to the next multiple     of 16. `