For a Microsoft Visual Basic .NET version of this article, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
IN THIS TASK
To save an Image with a custom color table by using the GIF encoder, you must work with a 256-color copy of the Image that System.Drawing has not modified.
The System.Drawing namespace is primarily a wrapper around GDI+, therefore this article refers to the namespace as GDI+ unless behavior that is specific to the
System.Drawing namespace is discussed, in which case, the term System.Drawing is used.
After GDI+ modifies an Image and then writes an image to a file by using the GIF encoder, GDI+ writes the file by using a halftone palette to which the Image object's bits have been color reduced. GDI+ does a color conversion from 32 bits per pixel (32 BPP) when it writes the image to the file because all modifications to the image are made with GDI+ 32-BPP graphics engine.
Although GDI+ supports the creation of Images and Bitmaps of various pixel formats and can therefore load a .gif image, the use of the 32-BPP graphics engine necessitates the conversion to 32 BPP when they are modified by GDI+. However, an Image or Bitmap that is not modified by GDI+ retains its original pixel format and can be written to a file using the Save method with the appropriate encoder. This property forms the basis for a technique that can save an Image to a .gif file with a custom color table.
Bitmap with the GIF encoder and keep the Bitmap color table intact; therefore, you can use this method to save a .gif file with a new color table.
The method is to copy the image data from an original Image object to a temporary Bitmap object. This temporary Bitmap is created as an 8-BPP indexed Bitmap, which is the pixel format that is used to save a .gif file. The Bitmap color table is set by using the SetPalette method, and then the image definition is copied to the temporary Bitmap. After you create the temporary Bitmap with a duplicate definition, you can use the Save() method to save it with the GIF encoder, which preserves the 8-BPP color table.
To write a .gif image to a file with a custom color table, follow these steps:
- Create a duplicate Bitmap object that is the same size as the source Image.
- Set the custom color table of the Bitmap object to the desired color table.
- Use the LockBits method to gain write access to the image bits of the copy.
- Create an image definition in the copy by writing color indexes to the memory that is obtained from LockBits that duplicate the pixels in the original Image.
- Use UnLockBits to release the image bits.
- Use the Bitmap copy with the custom color table to save the Image to a file by using Save and the GIF encoder.
- Release the Bitmap copy of the Image.
The sample function takes the following four parameters:
- Any GDI+ Image object.
- The file name for the target file.
- The number of colors for the .gif file.
- A flag that indicates whether a transparent color is needed.
To create the .gif file, you must initialize the 8-BPP Bitmap object with the image definition that is to be written to the file. In the sample code, a central set of loops is used to color convert the incoming image to essentially the black and white TV color space.
For demonstration purposes, the source image pixels are accessed by means of the GetPixel() method of a Bitmap object that is a copy of the source image. A Bitmap copy is made because the Image class does not implement the GetPixel() method.
You can use other techniques to access the pixels, such as direct access to the pixels by using the LockBits() method or interop with native unmanaged code by using Windows GDI DIB Sections. When you use the BitBlt function to copy a bitmap from a Gdi+ HDC to a GDI DIB Section memory domain controller, the GBitBlt functions uses the color matching abilities of GDI.
After you create the Bitmap copy, use the Save method with the ImageFormat.Gif object to write the bitmap to the target file.
Images that are 8 BPP. All other Image formats are converted before encoding. This code use the 8-BPP Bitmap format to write .gif files that have fewer than 256 colors because the GIF codec recognizes 8-BPP Bitmap objects that contain fewer than 256 colors by the Palette.Count property.
For more information about the GIF codec, see the "References" section of this article.
Unfortunately, the ColorPalette class of the System.Drawing namespace in the .NET Framework cannot be instantiated independent of a Bitmap object. This is a restriction that only the System.Drawing.Bitmap class imposes in the .NET Framework; however, to use the approach in this article, the Bitmap object must have a new ColorPalette object that contains fewer colors than the default 256 ColorPalette.
To achieve this, the sample code defines a function named GetColorPalette. This function creates a temporary Bitmap object that has a color depth close to the requested number of colors. The function then references the Palette property and returns it to the caller. This creates a new ColorPalette with one of several possible color counts: 256 colors, 16 colors, or two colors (monochrome). Although you can create color tables in .gif files that are smaller than 256 colors, color tables are limited to sizes that are a power of two.
When you limit color table sizes to a power of two, you minimize wasted space. The resulting color table in this example is 8 colors (2x2x2). With the sample code, the .gif file would be created with a color table of 16 colors because that is the smallest PixelFormat for a Bitmap that accomodates six colors.
The code in the processing loop that copies the image's pixel definitions to the 8-BPP Bitmap takes into account the size of the palette when the code computes a pixel's index value. The GIF codec limits the size of the palette and restricts the image definition to index values that are compatible with the palette size (that is, the potential GIF color table), and can therefore create .gif files with fewer than 256 colors.
ColorPalette creation routine sets the first entry to be the GIF transparent color to demonstrate the use of the transparency feature. The code does this by setting the Alpha component of the Color entry to ZERO. The sample code in this article is for demonstration purposes only, therefore, the transparency color is an arbitrary choice and may have unexpected results that depend entirely on the source Image.
The GIF encoder identifies the first color in the ColorPalette that has an Alpha value of ZERO as the transparent color. This means that the transparent color does not have to be the first entry in the ColorPalette. It can be any one of the possible 256 colors in the palette, on the condition that all preceeding entries contain Alpha components with non-zero values. Any later entries with Alpha component values of ZERO are ignored. All entries that have non-zero Alpha components are considered opaque.
For additional information about LZW licenses and GIF, click the article number below to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
protected ColorPalette GetColorPalette( uint nColors )
// Assume monochrome image.
PixelFormat bitscolordepth = PixelFormat.Format1bppIndexed;
ColorPalette palette; // The Palette we are stealing
Bitmap bitmap; // The source of the stolen palette
// Determine number of colors.
if (nColors > 2)
bitscolordepth = PixelFormat.Format4bppIndexed;
if (nColors > 16)
bitscolordepth = PixelFormat.Format8bppIndexed;
// Make a new Bitmap object to get its Palette.
bitmap = new Bitmap( 1, 1, bitscolordepth );
palette = bitmap.Palette; // Grab the palette
bitmap.Dispose(); // cleanup the source Bitmap
return palette; // Send the palette back
protected void SaveGIFWithNewColorTable(
// GIF codec supports 256 colors maximum, monochrome minimum.
if (nColors > 256)
nColors = 256;
if (nColors < 2)
nColors = 2;
// Make a new 8-BPP indexed bitmap that is the same size as the source image.
int Width = image.Width;
int Height = image.Height;
// Always use PixelFormat8bppIndexed because that is the color
// table-based interface to the GIF codec.
Bitmap bitmap = new Bitmap(Width,
// Create a color palette big enough to hold the colors you want.
ColorPalette pal = GetColorPalette(nColors);
// Initialize a new color table with entries that are determined
// by some optimal palette-finding algorithm; for demonstration
// purposes, use a grayscale.
for (uint i = 0; i < nColors; i++)
uint Alpha = 0xFF; // Colors are opaque.
uint Intensity = i*0xFF/(nColors-1); // Even distribution.
// The GIF encoder makes the first entry in the palette
// that has a ZERO alpha the transparent color in the GIF.
// Pick the first one arbitrarily, for demonstration purposes.
if ( i == 0 && fTransparent) // Make this color index...
Alpha = 0; // Transparent
// Create a gray scale for demonstration purposes.
// Otherwise, use your favorite color reduction algorithm
// and an optimum palette for that algorithm generated here.
// For example, a color histogram, or a median cut palette.
pal.Entries[i] = Color.FromArgb( (int)Alpha,
// Set the palette into the new Bitmap object.
bitmap.Palette = pal;
// Use GetPixel below to pull out the color data of Image.
// Because GetPixel isn't defined on an Image, make a copy
// in a Bitmap instead. Make a new Bitmap that is the same size as the
// image that you want to export. Or, try to
// interpret the native pixel format of the image by using a LockBits
// call. Use PixelFormat32BppARGB so you can wrap a Graphics
// around it.
Bitmap BmpCopy = new Bitmap(Width,
Graphics g = Graphics.FromImage(BmpCopy);
g.PageUnit = GraphicsUnit.Pixel;
// Transfer the Image to the Bitmap
g.DrawImage(image, 0, 0, Width, Height);
// g goes out of scope and is marked for garbage collection.
// Force it, just to keep things clean.
// Lock a rectangular portion of the bitmap for writing.
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(0, 0, Width, Height);
bitmapData = bitmap.LockBits(
// Write to the temporary buffer that is provided by LockBits.
// Copy the pixels from the source image in this loop.
// Because you want an index, convert RGB to the appropriate
// palette index here.
IntPtr pixels = bitmapData.Scan0;
// Get the pointer to the image bits.
// This is the unsafe operation.
byte * pBits;
if (bitmapData.Stride > 0)
pBits = (byte *)pixels.ToPointer();
// If the Stide is negative, Scan0 points to the last
// scanline in the buffer. To normalize the loop, obtain
// a pointer to the front of the buffer that is located
// (Height-1) scanlines previous.
pBits = (byte *)pixels.ToPointer() + bitmapData.Stride*(Height-1);
uint stride = (uint)Math.Abs(bitmapData.Stride);
for ( uint row = 0; row < Height; ++row )
for ( uint col = 0; col < Width; ++col )
// Map palette indexes for a gray scale.
// If you use some other technique to color convert,
// put your favorite color reduction algorithm here.
Color pixel; // The source pixel.
// The destination pixel.
// The pointer to the color index byte of the
// destination; this real pointer causes this
// code to be considered unsafe.
byte * p8bppPixel = pBits + row*stride + col;
pixel = BmpCopy.GetPixel((int)col, (int)row);
// Use luminance/chrominance conversion to get grayscale.
// Basically, turn the image into black and white TV.
// Do not calculate Cr or Cb because you
// discard the color anyway.
// Y = Red * 0.299 + Green * 0.587 + Blue * 0.114
// This expression is best as integer math for performance,
// however, because GetPixel listed earlier is the slowest
// part of this loop, the expression is left as
// floating point for clarity.
double luminance = (pixel.R *0.299) +
(pixel.G *0.587) +
// Gray scale is an intensity map from black to white.
// Compute the index to the grayscale entry that
// approximates the luminance, and then round the index.
// Also, constrain the index choices by the number of
// colors to do, and then set that pixel's index to the
// byte value.
*p8bppPixel = (byte)(luminance * (nColors-1)/255 +0.5);
} /* end loop for col */
} /* end loop for row */
} /* end unsafe */
// To commit the changes, unlock the portion of the bitmap.
// Bitmap goes out of scope here and is also marked for
// garbage collection.
// Pal is referenced by bitmap and goes away.
// BmpCopy goes out of scope here and is marked for garbage
// collection. Force it, because it is probably quite large.
// The same applies to bitmap.
About Sample CodeMicrosoft provides programming examples for illustration only, without warranty either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose. This article assumes that you are familiar with the programming language being demonstrated and the tools used to create and debug procedures. Microsoft support professionals can help explain the functionality of a particular procedure, but they will not modify these examples to provide added functionality or construct procedures to meet your specific needs.
If you have limited programming experience, you may want to contact a Microsoft Certified Partner or Microsoft Advisory Services. For more information, visit these Microsoft Web sites:
Microsoft Certified Partners - https://partner.microsoft.com/global/30000104
Microsoft Advisory Services - http://support.microsoft.com/gp/advisoryservice
For more information about the support options that are available and about how to contact Microsoft, visit the following Microsoft Web site:http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=fh;EN-US;CNTACTMS
The sample code also uses the keyword unsafe. It does this because the code that moves the pixel definitions from the source Bitmap to the destination Bitmap uses a pointer to byte values. Real pointers can only be used in code that is marked unsafe and that is compiled with the /unsafe compiler option. Any code written this way has security impliciations. In particular, such managed code may have to request permissions and may fail to run if it is not trusted.
For additional information about this technique using Microsoft Visual C++, click the article number below to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: