When you use the SQL Server Query Store feature in Microsoft SQL Server 2016, a “Non-yielding Scheduler” error may occur. Additionally, a mini-dump file is generated in the SQL Server Application log folder.
This problem occurs during the execution of a Query Store background task. If there are many plans in the Query Store, CPU starvation may occur for other worker threads that run on the same scheduler. This can cause a non-yielding scheduler error.
Microsoft has confirmed that this is a problem in the Microsoft products that are listed in the "Applies to" section.