Mail, contacts, calendar and tasks can still be synced over the air with a Microsoft Exchange server running Exchange Active Sync. Windows Phone can also sync over the air with Outlook.com, Gmail, Yahoo mail and others. Windows Mobile Device Center can still be used to sync non-Outlook data from the computer to a Windows Mobile-based device even if running unsupported versions of Outlook.
If you want to sync a Windows Mobile-based device with Outlook 2010, you can use a 32-bit version of Outlook 2010 that uses a standard MSI installation. Additionally, Windows Mobile Device Center may sync correctly with 32-bit installations of Outlook 2013.