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# WD: Overview of Expression and Formula Field Functions

##### SUMMARY
This article explains in detail the syntax and usage of the operatorsand functions that are available to the Expression (Formula) field.

In Word versions 6.x and later, the Expression field name was changed toFormula. Also, the Formula field name was changed in version 6.x toEquation.
`   1.x, 2.x                 6.x, 7.x, 97, 98 Macintosh Edition   Field Name               Field Name   -------------------      -----------------------   = (Expression)           = (Formula)   Eq (Formula)             Eq (Equation)				`

### OPERATORS

If you combine several operators in one field, Word evaluates theinformation in the following order:

1. % Percent
2. ^ Exponentiation
3. * and / Multiplication and division
4. + and - Addition and subtraction
In formulas with more than one operator with the same priority, Wordevaluates the operators from left to right. Use parentheses if youwant to alter the order of evaluations.
`   +   Addition           Syntax: {=x+y}   -   Subtraction        Syntax: {=x-y}                          NOTE: {=x--y} is the same as {=x+y}. An even                          number of subtraction signs is equivalent to                          one addition sign.   *   Multiplication     Syntax: {=x*y}   /   Division           Syntax: {=x/y}   %   Percentage         Syntax: {=x%}                                  {=25%} = .25                                  {=200*25%} = 50   ^   Powers and roots   Raise a number to another power                          or find a root of a number.                          Syntax: {=x^y}                                  {=4^2} = 16  4 squared                                  {=3^3} = 27  3 Cubed                                  {=27^(1/3)} = 3 Cube root of 27   =    Is equal to   <    Less than   <=   Less than or equal to   >    Greater than   >=   Greater than or equal to   <>   Not equal to				`

### TABLE COLUMN REFERENCES

#### Word 6.x, 7.x, 97, and Word 98 Macintosh Edition

NOTE: Word for Windows versions 6.x, 7.x, 97, and 98 use A1 reference types to refer to cells. It does not use RnCn reference types.
`   Bookmarkname  [D4]        Cell D4 in table identified by                             bookmarkname.   Bookmarkname  [D4:J17]    Range of cells identified by                             bookmarkname.				`
ABOVE, BELOW, LEFT, RIGHT can be used with the table functions (AVERAGE, COUNT, MAX, MIN, PRODUCT, SUM).

#### Word 1.x, 2.x

NOTE: n is used to indicate the row or column number.
`   [RnCn]                    Cell in Row n, Column n.   [Rn]                      All cells in Row n.   [Cn]                      All cells in Column n.   [R]                       Row that the formula is in, including the                             current cell.   [C]                       Column that the formula is in, including                             the current cell.   [RnCn:RnCn]               Range of all cells between the two cell                             references.   Bookmarkname  [RnCn]      Cell in table identified by bookmarkname.   Bookmarkname  [RnCn:RnCn] Range of cells identified by                             bookmarkname.				`

### FUNCTIONS

Functions with () can take any number of arguments. If the argumentshave more than two digits, you must put a space in front of each.

There are five Boolean functions, which return a value of 1 (true) or0 (false): NOT, OR, AND, FALSE, TRUE.

The following list provides information about the available functions foruse in Word:

Note: the AVERAGE, MAX, MIN, COUNT, PRODUCT, SUM functions can refer tocells in a table.
`    ABS(x)      Returns the absolute value of a number. The absolute               value of a number is the number without its sign.               {=ABS(3.5)} = 3.5               {=ABS(-3.5)} = 3.5   AND(x,y)    Returns "1" if both arguments are true. Returns "0" if               both arguments are false. Mostly used with IF               statements.               {=AND(profits>1000, profits<2000)} = 1 when "profits"               has been defined as \$1,234. The same formula returns 0               when profits has been defined as \$2,234.               {=IF(AND(profits>1000,profits<2000),13,15)} = 13 when               profits has been defined as \$1,234. The same formula               returns "15" when profits has been defined as \$2,234.   AVERAGE()   Gives the average value of the numbers in the list.               {=AVERAGE(10, 20, 60)} = 30 {=AVERAGE([RnCn],[RnCn])}   COUNT()     Tells you how many items are in the list.               {=COUNT(2, 5, 67, 1.38)} = 4               {=COUNT([RnCn],[RnCn],[RnCn],[RnCn])}   DEFINED(x)  Returns "1" (true) if x has been defined, "0" (false)               if it has not.               {=DEFINED(4/0)} = 0               {=DEFINED(gross_income)} = 1 if gross_income exists and               it evaluates without error.   FALSE       Returns a 1 if true or a 0 if true.               {=FALSE} = 0               {=IF(5=6,TRUE,FALSE)} = 0				`
`   IF(x,y,z)   The result y if the conditional expression x is true, or the               result z if the conditional expression is false. Note that y               and z is usually 1 and can be either any numberic value or               the words "true" or "false".   INT(x)      Rounds x down to the nearest integer.               {=INT(5.67)} = 5   MAX()       Returns the largest value in the list.               {=MAX(3, 4, 5)} = 5               {=MAX([RnCn],[RnCn],[RnCn])}   MIN()       Returns the smallest value in the list.               {=MIN(3, 4, 5)} = 3               {=MIN([RnCn],[RnCn],[RnCn])}  MOD(x,y)    Returns the remainder (modulus) after x is divided              by y. The result has the same sign as x. If the              answer is 0, returns "0.0" (without quotation              marks).               {=MOD(4, 2)} = 0.0               {=MOD(3, 2)} = 1               {=MOD(-3, 2)} = -1               {=MOD(3, -2)} = 1               {=MOD(-3, -2)} = -1               {=MOD(3.5, 2.7)} = 0.8   NOT(x)      Returns the Boolean opposite of the result. Mostly used               with IF formulas.               {=NOT(1=1)} = 0               {=NOT(1=5)} = 1               If x is defined as 7, 7{=NOT(x>10)} = 1   OR(x,y)     Returns "1" if one or both arguments are true. Returns               "0" if both arguments are false. Generally used with IF               formulas.               {=OR(1+2=3, 2=4)} = 1               {=OR(1+5=3, 2=4)} = 0   PRODUCT()   Multiplies all the items in the list.               {=PRODUCT(5,4,3)} = 60 {=PRODUCT(5,4,3,(1/2))} = 30               {=PRODUCT([RnCn],[RnCn],[RnCn])}   ROUND(x,y)  Rounds x to y digits. If y is greater than 0, then x is               rounded down to y decimal places.               If y is 0, x is rounded down to the nearest integer.               If y is a negative number, x is rounded down to the               left of the decimal point.               {=ROUND(x,y)}               {=ROUND(123.456, 2)} = 123.46               {=ROUND(123.456, 1)} = 123.5               {=ROUND(123.456, 0)} = 123               {=ROUND(123.456, -0)} = 123               {=ROUND(123.456, -1)} = 120               {=ROUND(123.456, -2)} = 100               {=ROUND(156.789, -2)} = 200               y is zero. Rounds x to the nearest integer.               {=ROUND(123.456, 0)} = 123               y is positive. Rounds to y decimal places.               {=ROUND(123.456, 2)} = 123.46               {=ROUND(123.456, 1)} = 123.5               y is negative. Rounds x to that number of places to the               left of the decimal. Y must not be greater than 1               minus the number of digits in x. "-1" rounds to the               nearest tens place, "-2" rounds to the nearest hundreds               place, "-3" rounds to the nearest thousands place.               {=ROUND(123.456, -0)} = 123               {=ROUND(123.456, -1)} = 120               {=ROUND(123.456, -2)} = 100               {=ROUND(156.789, -2)} = 200   SIGN(x)     Determines whether a number is positive (returns 1) or               negative (returns -1) or zero (returns 0). Mostly used               with the IF field.               {=SIGN(-25)} = -1               {=SIGN(0)} = 0               {=SIGN(456)} = 1   SUM()       Adds the numbers in the list.               {=SUM(5, 13, 2, 4, 6)} = 30 {=SUM(5, 13, -2, 4, -6)} = 14               {=SUM([RnCn],[RnCn],[RnCn])}   TRUE        Returns a 1 if true or a 0 if false.               {=TRUE} = 1				`
In Word 97 for Windows and Word 98 Macintosh Edition, for more informationabout formulas, click the Office Assistant, type formula, click Search,and then click "Field codes: (Formula) field".

NOTE: If the Assistant is hidden, click the Office Assistant button on theStandard toolbar. If Word Help is not installed on your computer, pleasesee the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
120802 Office: How to Add/Remove a Single Office Program or Component
##### REFERENCES
"Word for Windows and OS/2 Technical Reference" (blue book), pages337-342

"Word for Windows Technical Reference" (brown book), pages 153-156

Word for Windows 2.0 Help, Index, Field Types and Instructions,Expression

"Hacker's Guide to Word for Windows," Woody Leonard and Vincent Chen,Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1993
winword2 word6 word95 word7 winword acword word97
Properties

Article ID: 105640 - Last Review: 01/18/2007 22:40:32 - Revision: 2.3

• Microsoft Word 1.0 Standard Edition
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