How to Use Static Routes with Routing and Remote Access Service

This article was previously published under Q178993
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SUMMARY
The information in this article explains how to add static routes to acomputer running Windows NT Server and the Routing and Remote AccessService (RRAS) Update or Windows 2000, so that it can route packets to a remote network.The information in this article only pertains to those environments whereno routing protocols are configured, such as Routing Information Protocol(RIP) or Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).
MORE INFORMATION
Depending upon the specific scenario, static routes may not be the mostefficient method of achieving IP routing. However, in smaller environmentswhere there are few networks, it can be less overhead than using a routingprotocol.

NOTE: The following steps assume that RRAS is installed, the Dial-on-Demand(DOD) interfaces are properly configured, and connections are successfulbetween the two RRAS servers.

To add a static route, perform the following steps on both servers:

  1. Click Start, point to Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and click Routing and RAS Admin. - in Windows 2000 click Routing and Remote Access.
  2. Double-click IP Routing to expand that object.
  3. Right-click Static Routes and click Add static route - in Windows 2000 click New Static Route.
The following information will be necessary to add a static route:

Destination (Network)
Network Mask
Gateway (address)
Metric
Interface


There are several reasons for wanting to add a static route to yourconfiguration and there are several configuration issues that can alterwhat you add in the parameters above. Several scenarios are shown below tohelp you configure your static routes, but these scenarios are not intendedto be a complete list of possibilities.

Scenario One: A Simple LAN-to-LAN Environment

       RRAS(1) --- Modem -  -  - Modem --- RRAS(2)      10.10.0.1                            10.20.0.1          |                                    |       LAN(1)                                LAN(2)      10.10.0.0                            10.20.0.0				

Network Interface Card (NIC) IP parameters on:

RRAS(1) <IP> 10.10.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, no default gateway
RRAS(2) <IP> 10.20.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, no default gateway

RRAS(1) has a DOD named "HELLO" that dials RRAS(2)
RRAS(2) has a DOD named "HELLO" that dials RRAS(1)

NOTE: The names of the DOD interfaces above are the same for convenience.For more information on how to name DOD interfaces, see the followingarticle in the Microsoft Knowledge base:

ARTICLE-ID: Configuring Routing and Remote Access Dial-Up Interfaces
TITLE : 159684

In this scenario, there are no other routers and the desired result is forIP packets on LAN(1) to be successfully routed to LAN(2) and vice versa. Inthis scenario, all computers on LAN(1) will define their default gatewayaddress as 10.10.0.1 (RRAS(1) NIC) and all the computers on LAN(2) willdefine their default gateway address as 10.20.0.1 (RRAS(2) NIC). The tablebelow shows the information that should be supplied to add the staticroutes for each RRAS router:

                            RRAS(1)   RRAS(2)     Destination (Network)  0.0.0.0   0.0.0.0     Network Mask           0.0.0.0   0.0.0.0     Gateway (address)      1.1.1.1   1.1.1.1     Metric                 1         1     Interface              "HELLO"   "HELLO"				


The destination address and network mask on both routers should be allzeroes, the gateway address should be all ones. The metric is unimportantin this scenario, setting it to one is sufficient. It is very important tochoose the DOD interface in the drop down window that is configured to dialthe remote location.

Scenario Two: A LAN-to-LAN Environment with One Other Router

Router(A)            RRAS(1) --- Modem -  -  - Modem ---  RRAS(2)10.40.0.1  10.10.0.2      10.10.0.1                            10.20.0.1    |        |                |                                     | LAN(4)       ---  LAN(1)  ---                                    LAN(2)10.40.0.0        10.10.0.0                                      10.20.0.0				

NIC IP parameters on:

RRAS(1) <IP> 10.10.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 10.10.0.2
RRAS(2) <IP> 10.20.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, no default gateway

RRAS(1) has a DOD named "HELLO" that dials RRAS(2)
RRAS(2) has a DOD named "HELLO" that dials RRAS(1)

This scenario is used to describe a remote, or satellite, office connectingto the larger corporate network through a RRAS Server. Notice in this scenariothat the IP configuration of the NIC on RRAS(1) now has a default gatewayparameter. This means that the static route that is added to RRAS(1) willneed to be different. Instead of adding a default gateway route of 0.0.0.0,a specific network route will need to be added to RRAS(1). The defaultgateway specified on the NIC will take care of any other routing that maybe necessary. Also notice that because RRAS(2) has no other route in itsenvironment, it can use the same route as in Scenario One above. Thefollowing table shows the information that should be supplied for each RRASrouter:

                            RRAS(1)      RRAS(2)     Destination (Network)  10.20.0.0    0.0.0.0     Network Mask           255.255.0.0  0.0.0.0     Gateway (address)      1.1.1.1      1.1.1.1     Metric                 1            1     Interface              "HELLO"      "HELLO"				

Scenario Three: A LAN-to-LAN Environment with Multiple Routers

Router(A)        RRAS(1) --- Modem - - Modem --- RRAS(2)       Router(B)10.10.0.2       10.10.0.1                        10.20.0.1       10.20.0.2   |                |                                |                |    ---- LAN(1) ----                                  ---- LAN(2) ----       10.10.0.0                                         10.20.0.0				


NIC IP parameters on:

RRAS(1) <IP> 10.10.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 10.10.0.2
RRAS(2) <IP> 10.20.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 10.20.0.2

RRAS(1) has a DOD named "HELLO" that dials RRAS(2)
RRAS(2) has a DOD named "HELLO" that dials RRAS(1)

The following scenario assumes that there are two office locations withmultiple IP segments on each. The two offices are connecting through RRASServers. Notice in this scenario that the IP configurations of the RRASNICs have default gateways configured. This means that the static routesthat are added to each RRAS Server will have to be more specific. Insteadof adding default gateway routes of 0.0.0.0, specific network routes willneed to be added to both servers. The default gateway specified on the NICwill take care of any other routing that may be necessary. The followingtable shows the information that should be supplied for each RRAS router:

                            RRAS(1)       RRAS(2)     Destination (Network)  10.20.0.0     10.10.0.0     Network Mask           255.255.0.0   255.255.0.0     Gateway (address)      1.1.1.1       1.1.1.1     Metric                 1             1     Interface              "HELLO"       "HELLO"				

Scenario Four: Multiple RRAS Servers and Multiple Routers

Router(A)        RRAS(1) --- Modem ----- Modem --- RRAS(2)     Router(B)10.10.0.2       10.10.0.1        |      /          10.20.0.1     10.20.0.2   |                |            |     /               |                |    ---- LAN(1) ----             |    /                 ---- LAN(2) ----       10.10.0.0                 |   /                     10.20.0.0                                 |  /                                  | /                                  |/ Router(C)        RRAS(3) --- Modem10.30.0.2       10.30.0.1   |                |    ---- LAN(3) ----       10.30.0.0				

NIC IP parameters on:

RRAS(1) <IP> 10.10.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 10.10.0.2
RRAS(2) <IP> 10.20.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 10.20.0.2
RRAS(3) <IP> 10.30.0.1, mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 10.30.0.2

RRAS(1) has a DOD named "HELLO1020" that dials RRAS(2)
has a DOD named "HELLO1030" that dials RRAS(3)

RRAS(2) has a DOD named "HELLO1020" that dials RRAS(1)
has a DOD named "HELLO2030" that dials RRAS(3)

RRAS(3) has a DOD named "HELLO1030" that dials RRAS(1)
has a DOD named "HELLO2030" that dials RRAS(2)

Notice that in this scenario, not only does each network have an additionalrouter on it, but the RRAS Servers dial different DOD interfaces dependingon where the packets need to be sent. This means that more than one staticroute will need to be added and that each of these static routes will needto be specific network routes. The following table shows the informationthat should be supplied for each RRAS router:
First static route     RRAS(1)      RRAS(2)      RRAS(3)Destination (Network)  10.20.0.0    10.10.0.0    10.10.0.0Network Mask           255.255.0.0  255.255.0.0  255.255.0.0Gateway (address)      1.1.1.1      1.1.1.1      1.1.1.1Metric                 1            1            1Interface              HELLO1020    HELLO1020    HELLO1030Second static routeDestination (Network)  10.30.0.0    10.30.0.0    10.20.0.0Network Mask           255.255.0.0  255.255.0.0  255.255.0.0Gateway (address)      1.1.1.1      1.1.1.1      1.1.1.1Metric                 1            1            1Interface              HELLO1030    HELLO2030    HELLO2030				

Troubleshooting Static Routes

The following are some troubleshooting steps for static routes in a RRASenvironment:

  • If the DOD connections cannot be made for some reason, the static routes will not function. The DOD connections and modem lines must be working before static routes over the DOD connections will work. Local routing will still function.
  • As with all routed environments, routers at each hop must have the correct routing information in order to get packets from one side of a network to the other. This means that adding static routes on one side may not be useful if the destination router has no route to get the packets back to the originating network.
  • Make certain the correct DOD interface for static routes to other networks is correctly identified. If packets are to be routed over a DOD connection, make sure to select the correct DOD interface when creating the static route. Selecting the NIC will not be sufficient to initiate a DOD connection.
  • Reinstallation of Windows NT Service Pack 3 over RRAS may be necessary on your server and can result in intermittent problems with connectivity, including routing of packets through static routes. If Service Pack 3 is reapplied over an RRAS installation, RRAS must be updated.
Properties

Article ID: 178993 - Last Review: 12/05/2015 08:16:57 - Revision: 1.2

Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Standard Edition, Microsoft Routing and Remote Access Service Update for Windows NT Server 4.0

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