Microsoft Office contains Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) drivers that you can use to access data from other programs. This article describes the different types of data source names (DSN) that you can install and use in Microsoft Office programs, specifically in Microsoft Excel.
When you install Microsoft Office, an ODBC icon that represents the ODBC Manager is installed in Control Panel. The ODBC Manager allows you to set up and configure ODBC data sources. In the ODBC Manager, you can set up and configure the following three types of DSNs:
- User DSN
- System DSN
- File DSN
The User DSN is a data source that is user-specific. A User DSN is stored locally but is available only to the user who creates it. User DSNs are not used by Microsoft Query. If you use Microsoft Jet, ODBC, or Structured Query Language (SQL) commands and bypass Microsoft Query, User DSNs are required. User DSNs are stored in the Windows registry under the following key:
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Odbc\Odbc.ini\Odbc Data sources
Unlike a User DSN, a System DSN is not user-specific. A System DSN is stored locally and is not dedicated to a particular user. Any user who logs on to a computer that has permission to access the data source can use a System DSN. Some programs, such as Microsoft SQL Server or Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), require a System DSN. This DSN must be created on the server where the program is located. System DSNs are stored in the Windows registry under the following key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Odbc\Odbc.ini\Odbc Data sources
The File DSN is created locally and can be shared with other users. The File DSN is file-based, which means that the .dsn file contains all the information required to connect to the data source. Note that you must install the ODBC driver locally to use a File DSN. Microsoft Query uses File DSNs, but Microsoft Jet and ODBC do not use File DSNs.
The File DSNs are stored by default in the Program Files\Common Files\Odbc\Data Sources folder. File DSNs are not stored in the Windows registry. The .dsn file is a text file that you can view in any text editor, such as Microsoft Notepad.NOTE
: When you connect to an existing data source using Microsoft Query, only the available File DSNs that are stored on that computer are displayed. Microsoft Query does not display User or System DSNs. However, you can create a File DSN that points to a System DSN.
To create a File DSN that points to a System DSN, follow these steps:
- In a text editor, such as Microsoft Notepad, type the following two lines in a new document
[ODBC]DSN=MySysDSN where "MySysDSN" is the name of an existing System DSN that you installed in the ODBC tool in Control Panel.
- Click Save on the File menu and type a name that includes a .dsn file name extension for the File DSN; for example, the following is a valid name:
"DBase4.dsn" Include the quotation marks to ensure that the .dsn file name extension is added correctly.
You can also share a File DSN with other users. To do this, share the folder in which the .dsn file is stored using the following steps:
- Right-click Start, and then click Explore.
- Open the folder that contains the .dsn files. By default, this is the Program Files\Common Files\Odbc\Data Sources folder.
- Right-click the folder, and then click Sharing. On the Sharing tab, click Shared As, type the name to use for the folder in the Share Name box, and then click OK.
: Each user must install the appropriate ODBC driver (the driver that the File DSN refers to) on the computer for the File DSN to function properly.
Sample Macro to Return External Data to Microsoft Excel
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The following Microsoft Excel Visual Basic for Applications macro can use an existing User or System DSN to retrieve data from a database and store the data in a worksheet. The sample DSN that is used in this macro is MyDSN. It references the Microsoft Access sample database Northwind.mdb in the Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office\Samples folder. You can use MyDSN as a User or System DSN, but you cannot use it as a File DSN.
Sub Get_Data() 'Define SQL query string to get the CategoryName field from 'the Category table. sqlstring = "SELECT CategoryName FROM Categories" 'Define connection string and reference File DSN. connstring = "ODBC;DSN=MyDSN" 'Create QueryTable in worksheet beginning with cell C1. With ActiveSheet.QueryTables.Add(Connection:=connstring, _ Destination:=Range("C1"), Sql:=sqlstring) .Refresh End WithEnd Sub