This article describes the details of Microsoft Systems Management Server Network Discovery.
Determining Computer in Domains
This is accomplished by querying the master browser of the domain.
Determining the Computer's Operating System
This is accomplished by connecting to the computer and using LAN Manager calls initiating the following items:
Collect tree object identifiers (OIDs):
(sysDescr: include the full name and the version identification of the system's hardware type, operating system, and networking software)
(sysObjectID: The vendor's authoritative identification of the network management subsystem contained in the entity)
(ipForwarding: The indication of whether this entity is acting as an IP gateway in respect to the forwarding of datagrams received by,but not addressed to, this entity. IP gateways forward datagrams. IP hosts do not)
The first OID reports the operating system; the third OID reports the subnet necessary to create a Data Discovery record (DDR). For more information, see RFC 1213.
To determine the computer's operating system, the Microsoft Windows NT Server service, or file sharing on Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows Millennium Edition (Me) clients, must be enabled. Otherwise, the client is considered "hidden" from the network. If a computer is "hidden" from the network, it not seen during network discovery. The computer may be discovered but does not provide the operating system. Systems Management Server cannot do much without this information.
For example, if a Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows Me client does not have file and print sharing enabled, it cannot be identified as a Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows Me client. Because Systems Management Server cannot extrapolate the operating system on the computer, it is prevented from being discovered by this method. This is by design. It can, however, be discover as an IP device with an IP address that responds to ICMP but not SNMP. This is a limitation of the network.
Windows NT-based computers generally have the Server service installed, so this is not typically a problem. If you disable the Server service to "hide" a Windows NT-based computer, it does not appear in the Browser list which in turn does not appear in the Microsoft DHCP list. This causes the computer to be "hidden" from network discovery. When you are using static IP addresses, Systems Management Server sends out Broadcast messages to discover clients. You can verify this by using Network Monitor. Use the net config server /hidden:no
command to resolve this situation manually.
Determining the Subnet Mask
This is accomplished by using the following methods:
- Microsoft DHCP: provides the IP address and subnet mask
- SNMP agents on the clients
- Router's ARP cache
If none of these methods are used, there is no way for network discovery to absolutely determine the subnet mask. Network discovery creates DDRs only for computers for which the subnet mask can be determined. When you are reviewing the Netdisc.log file by using Systems Management ServerTrace or Notepad, the computer is listed as being seen, but no DDR is created unless the subnet mask can be verified. If a DDR is not written and the computer is statically mapped,see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
SMS: How SMS Network Discovery Discovers Clients with Static IP Addresses
Once the IP address of a device is seen, the subnet mask can be verified by either Microsoft DHCP or SNMP if the SNMP agents have been installed on the client computer.
Subnet Discovery and the Subnet Tab
tab is simply a way of finding some potential resources. Enabling an individual subnet means that the next time network discovery runs, it can query that subnet for other subnet information, as well as query its ARP cache. If the interface from which an IP address is listed has only a single IP address, that is enough to provide the subnet mask and allow a DDR to be generated. Not enabling, or disabling, a subnet means that a router is not contacted for that subnet for discovery. It allows subnets and topology (routers, etc.) to be discovered. Using the subnets listed on this tab, the community names are used to contact the routers for their ARP cache information. Note that if the router port is multihomed, Systems Management Server does not use it because there is no way to determine which subnets are intended to be used for Systems Management Server. NOTE
: If a subnet is not enabled, no clients will be returned from that subnet.
To enable a subnet that has been previously discovered by Network Discovery, you must modify the Network Discovery properties. In the Subnets tab, all subnets will be listed that were either placed into the list by the SMS Administrator manually or were discovered by a previous run of Network Discovery. By default, all subnets that are discovered by Network Discovery are disabled when they are added to the list and must be manually enabled before clients will be discovered on that subnet.
Under the Search column you will see the status of each subnet, Enabled or Disabled. To toggle the status highlight the desired subnet and click on the far right hand icon immediately above the subnet list. This will change the status of the subnet. NOTE
: After modifying the Enabled status of a subnet, Network Discovery must be scheduled to run again before any clients will be returned from the newly enabled subnet(s).
Assuming that a valid community name is provided, the ARP cache information is returned for each subnet served by the router. If the client can be found in the ARP cache and the router has a single address for that interface, its subnet mask can be identified, and the device can be reported. The list of subnets on the Subnets
tab is those that network discovery found during its previous discovery runs (by default, initially, just the local default gateway of the site server is known). The default gateway is queried to determine which other subnets it knows about. RIP 1 announcements are also listened for, as well as OSPF Hello announcements. These subnets are then all listed. If network discovery finds the subnet by either routers or DHCP, it reports them in the user interface with a gold lock icon next to the subnet. This lock icon indicates that they were found by network discovery and are valid IP subnets. They cannot be deleted. If they were deleted, they would reappear after the next discovery run when they were discovered again. If the subnet no longer exists, it is removed from the user interface listing after a period of time. To specify the time to delete the non-existent subnet from network discovery, specify the Database Management
task field to Delete Aged Discovery Data
. You can delete the subnets that were entered manually if network discovery did not find them automatically.
Domains, SNMP, DHCP, and Tabs
, and DHCP
tabs are simply seeding mechanisms for providing Systems Management a list of potential resources, and one way to contact them. Domain browsing (from the Domains
tab) occurs to get a list of resources. They are then pinged to determine if they are available, then connected to, then sent some API calls to return operating system information (if enabled), and then SNMP is used to get the subnet mask. With SNMP, the device can be queried directly, or a router's ARP cache can be queried to retrieve it. The community name listed on the SNMP
tab is used to provide a name that can be used to query the individual hosts that were discovered through router queries, domain browsing calls, or DHCP retrieval. The hops count also limits how far away from the local subnet it traverses.