INFO: Initializing Bitfields as Integers in C

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SUMMARY
In Microsoft C, you can initialize the values of an entire bitfieldstructure as an integer in several ways:
  • Declare the bitfield structure as part of a union with an integer. (This is the preferred method).
  • Use an integer pointer by setting the pointer to the address of the structure and then changing what the pointer points to.
  • Enforce the bitfield type constraints to get a copy of the bitfield into an integer variable.
For examples of these three methods, see below.
MORE INFORMATION
In Microsoft C, bitfields are stored in word-sized blocks with the leastsignificant bit representing the first bit of the bitfield. For example,the bitfields in bitstruct, defined below in the example, are stored asfollows:
           <  p4   > <  p3   > < p2> <p1>        |?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|?|				
Assigning the integer 0x4c to this structure results in the following bitpattern:
        |0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|1|0|0|1|1|0|0|				
The bitfields are given the following respective values:
   p1=0 p2=3 p3=2 p4=0				
If the number of bits needed for a bitfield structure exceeds 16 in codecompiled for MS-DOS or Windows, words will be added as needed to provideroom for the structure with no single bitfield crossing a word boundary.Microsoft C/C++, 32-bit Edition, stores bitfield structures in double wordvalues. If the field requires more than 32 bits, the compiler usesadditional double words as needed.

NOTE: There is no "standard" for storing bitfields in memory; therefore,any program that depends on a particular storage method is not portable tosystems that use a different method.

Sample Code

struct strtype   {   unsigned p1:2;   unsigned p2:3;   unsigned p3:5;   unsigned p4:5;   } bitstruct;union untype   {   struct strtype un_bitstruct;   unsigned bit_integer;   } bitunion;unsigned *intptr;unsigned intgr;void main(void){   /*  Using the bitfield structure only */       /* Set the pointer to address of bitfield */    intptr = (unsigned *)&bitstruct;      /* Change the bitfield */    *intptr = 0x4c;      /* Get the new value */    intgr = *(unsigned *)&bitstruct;   /* Using an union makes this much easier (syntactically) */       /* Set the pointer */    intptr = &bitunion.bit_integer;      /* Change the bitfield */    bitunion.bit_integer = 0x4c;      /* Get the new value */    intgr = bitunion.bit_integer;}				
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Article ID: 60252 - Last Review: 02/27/2014 18:29:57 - Revision: 2.1

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