# Example to Evaluate Basic Numeric Expressions

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##### Summary
This article contains an example program that evaluates a numericexpression contained in a string, mimicking the operators,built-in functions, and order of evaluation used by Microsoft Basiclanguage products. This article also explains the operatorprecedence rules in detail.
The example program listed below recognizes the following operatorsand subexpressions, listed by precedence from highest to lowest:
• Constants, function calls, parentheses
• Exponentiation ^
• Unary minus -
• Multiplication and division *, /
• Integer division \
• Integer modulus MOD
• Addition and subtraction +, -
• Relational operators =, <>, <, >, <=, >=
• NOT
• AND
• OR
• XOR
• EQV
• IMP

The precedence of unary minus "-" and operator "NOT" indicate thehighest possible precedence of their operand. Unary minus and "NOT"may occur in an expression of any precedence. The followingexpressions illustrate the precedence rules for unary minus and "NOT".
`   Expression        Value   ----------        -----    -1  ^  2          -1   -(1  ^  2)         -1   (-1) ^  2           1     2  ^ -2          .25    NOT  0  = 1       -1    NOT (0  = 1)      -1   (NOT  0) = 1        0    NOT  0  AND 1      1   (NOT  0) AND 1      1    NOT (0  AND 1)    -1				`

The example program listed below accepts number constants written asdecimal numbers with an optional fraction. For example, it accepts"123" and "123.4". It is possible to modify the program to recognizehexadecimal, scientific notation, or other formats.

This example program also recognizes the following functions: ABS,ATN, COS, EXP, FIX, INT, LOG, RND, SNG, SIN, SQR, and TAN.

### Steps to Create Example Program

1. Run Visual Basic, or from the File menu, choose New Project (press ALT, F, N) if Visual Basic is already running. Form1 will be created by default.
2. Add a text box (Text1) and a command button (Command1) to Form1.
3. Set the Text property for Text1 to the null string (empty).
4. Enter the following code in the Command1 Click event procedure:
``   Sub Command1_Click ()       Dim n As Double       If e_eval(Text1.Text, n) Then         MsgBox Format\$(n)       End If   End Sub					``
5. Add the following code in the general Declarations section of Form1:
``' To run this program in Visual Basic for MS-DOS, change the' following Dim statements to DIM SHARED.'Dim e_input As String     ' Expression input string.Dim e_tok As String       ' Current token kind.Dim e_spelling As String  ' Current token spelling.Dim e_error As Integer    ' Tells if syntax error occurred.' e_eval'   Evaluate a string containing an infix numeric expression.'   If successful, return true and place result in <value>.'   This is the top-level function in the expression evaluator.Function e_eval (ByVal s As String, value As Double) As Integer   ' Initialize.   e_error = 0   e_input = s   Call e_nxt   ' Evaluate.   value = e_prs(1)   ' Check for unrecognized input.   If e_tok <> "" And Not e_error Then      MsgBox "syntax error, token = '" + e_spelling + "'"   e_error = -1   End If   e_eval = Not e_errorEnd Function' e_prs'   Parse an expression, allowing operators of a specified'   precedence or higher. The lowest precedence is 1.'   This function gets tokens with e_nxt and recursively'   applies operator precedence rules.Function e_prs (p As Integer) As Double   Dim n As Double    ' Return value.   Dim fun As String  ' Function name.   ' Parse expression that begins with a token (precedence 12).   If e_tok = "num" Then      ' number.      n = Val(e_spelling)      Call e_nxt   ElseIf e_tok = "-" Then      ' unary minus.      Call e_nxt      n = -e_prs(11)    ' Operand precedence 11.   ElseIf e_tok = "not" Then      ' logical NOT.      Call e_nxt      n = Not e_prs(6)  ' Operand precedence 6.   ElseIf e_tok = "(" Then      ' parentheses.      Call e_nxt      n = e_prs(1)      Call e_match(")")   ElseIf e_tok = "id" Then      ' Function call.      fun = e_spelling      Call e_nxt      Call e_match("(")      n = e_prs(1)      Call e_match(")")      n = e_function(fun, n)   Else      If Not e_error Then         MsgBox "syntax error, token = '" + e_spelling + "'"         e_error = -1      End If   End If   ' Parse binary operators.Do While Not e_error  If 0 Then  ' To allow ElseIf .  ElseIf p <= 11 And e_tok  = "^"  Then Call e_nxt: n = n ^   e_prs(12)  ElseIf p <= 10 And e_tok  = "*"  Then Call e_nxt: n = n *   e_prs(11)  ElseIf p <= 10 And e_tok = "/"   Then Call e_nxt: n = n /   e_prs(11)  ElseIf p <= 9  And e_tok = "\"   Then Call e_nxt: n = n \   e_prs(10)  ElseIf p <= 8  And e_tok = "mod" Then Call e_nxt: n = n Mod e_prs(9)  ElseIf p <= 7  And e_tok = "+"   Then Call e_nxt: n = n +    e_prs(8)  ElseIf p <= 7  And e_tok = "-"   Then Call e_nxt: n = n -    e_prs(8)  ElseIf p <= 6  And e_tok = "="   Then Call e_nxt: n = n =    e_prs(7)  ElseIf p <= 6  And e_tok = "<"   Then Call e_nxt: n = n <    e_prs(7)  ElseIf p <= 6  And e_tok = ">"   Then Call e_nxt: n = n >    e_prs(7)  ElseIf p <= 6  And e_tok = "<>"  Then Call e_nxt: n = n <>   e_prs(7)  ElseIf p <= 6  And e_tok = "<="  Then Call e_nxt: n = n <=   e_prs(7)  ElseIf p <= 6  And e_tok = ">="  Then Call e_nxt: n = n >=   e_prs(7)  ElseIf p <= 5  And e_tok = "and" Then Call e_nxt: n = n And  e_prs(6)  ElseIf p <= 4  And e_tok = "or"  Then Call e_nxt: n = n Or   e_prs(5)  ElseIf p <= 3  And e_tok = "xor" Then Call e_nxt: n = n Xor  e_prs(4)  ElseIf p <= 2  And e_tok = "eqv" Then Call e_nxt: n = n Eqv  e_prs(3)  ElseIf p <= 1  And e_tok = "imp" Then Call e_nxt: n = n Imp  e_prs(2)  Else       Exit Do  End If Loop   e_prs = nEnd Function' e_function.'   Evaluate a function. This is a helper function to simplify'   e_prs.Function e_function (fun As String, arg As Double) As Double   Dim n As Double   Select Case LCase\$(fun)   Case "abs": n = Abs(arg)   Case "atn": n = Atn(arg)   Case "cos": n = Cos(arg)   Case "exp": n = Exp(arg)   Case "fix": n = Fix(arg)   Case "int": n = Int(arg)   Case "log": n = Log(arg)   Case "rnd": n = Rnd(arg)   Case "sgn": n = Sgn(arg)   Case "sin": n = Sin(arg)   Case "sqr": n = Sqr(arg)   Case "tan": n = Tan(arg)   Case Else      If Not e_error Then         MsgBox "undefined function '" + fun + "'"         e_error = -1      End If   End Select   e_function = nEnd Function' e_nxt'   Get the next token into e_tok and e_spelling and remove the'   token from e_input.'   This function groups the input into "words" like numbers,'   operators and function names.Sub e_nxt ()   Dim is_keyword As Integer   Dim c As String  ' Current input character.   e_tok = ""   e_spelling = ""   ' Skip whitespace.   Do      c = Left\$(e_input, 1)      e_input = Mid\$(e_input, 2)   Loop While c = " " Or c = Chr\$(9) Or c = Chr\$(13) Or c = Chr\$(10)   Select Case LCase\$(c)   ' Number constant. Modify this to support hexadecimal, etc.   Case "0" To "9", "."      e_tok = "num"      Do         e_spelling = e_spelling + c         c = Left\$(e_input, 1)         e_input = Mid\$(e_input, 2)      Loop While (c >= "0" And c <= "9") Or c = "."      e_input = c + e_input   ' Identifier or keyword.   Case "a" To "z", "_"      e_tok = "id"      Do         e_spelling = e_spelling + c         c = LCase\$(Left\$(e_input, 1))         e_input = Mid\$(e_input, 2)         is_id% = (c >= "a" And c <= "z")         is_id% = is_id% Or c = "_" Or (c >= "0" And c <= "9")      Loop While is_id%      e_input = c + e_input      ' Check for keyword.      is_keyword = -1      Select Case LCase\$(e_spelling)         Case "and"         Case "eqv"         Case "imp"         Case "mod"         Case "not"         Case "or"         Case "xor"         Case Else: is_keyword = 0      End Select      If is_keyword Then         e_tok = LCase\$(e_spelling)      End If   ' Check for <=, >=, <>.   Case "<", ">"      e_tok = c      c = Left\$(e_input, 1)      If c = "=" Or c = ">" Then         e_tok = e_tok + c         e_input = Mid\$(e_input, 2)      End If   ' Single character token.   Case Else      e_tok = c   End Select    If e_spelling = "" Then       e_spelling = e_tok   End IfEnd Sub' e_match'   Check the current token and skip past it.'   This function helps with syntax checking.Sub e_match (token As String)   If Not e_error And e_tok <> token Then      MsgBox "expected " + token + ", got '" + e_spelling + "'"      e_error = -1   End If   Call e_nxtEnd Sub					``
6. Press F5 to run the program. Type an expression into Text1 such as "1+2*3^4". Click Command1.
The program displays the result, 163 in this case.
2.00 3.00
Properties

Article ID: 86688 - Last Review: 01/16/2015 17:32:49 - Revision: 3.0

• Microsoft Visual Basic 1.0 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Visual Basic 2.0 Standard Edition
• Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0 Professional Edition
• kbnosurvey kbarchive KB86688