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How to transfer logins and passwords between instances of SQL Server

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INTRODUCTION
This article describes how to transfer the logins and the passwords between instances of Microsoft SQL Server 2005, of Microsoft SQL Server 2008, and of Microsoft SQL Server 2012 on different servers.

For more information about how to transfer the logins and the passwords between instances of other versions of SQL Server, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
246133 How to transfer logins and passwords between instances of SQL Server
More information
In this article, server A and server B are different servers. Additionally, both server A and server B are running SQL Server 2005.

Note This information also applies to SQL Server 2008 and to SQL Server 2012.

After you move a database from the instance of SQL Server on server A to the instance of SQL Server on server B, users may be unable to log in to the database on server B. Additionally, users may receive the following error message:
Login failed for user 'MyUser'. (Microsoft SQL Server, Error: 18456)
This problem occurs because you did not transfer the logins and the passwords from the instance of SQL Server on server A to the instance of SQL Server on server B.

To transfer the logins, use one of the following methods, as appropriate for your situation.

Method 1: Log in by using the pre-SQL Server 2000 password

To resolve this issue, ask the user to log in to the server that is running SQL Server by using the pre-SQL Server 2000 login.

Note The password hashing is updated automatically when the user logs in by using the pre-SQL Server 2000 password.

Method 2: Reset the password in SQL Server

To resolve this issue, reset the password in SQL Server, and then script out the login.

Note The password hashing algorithm is used when you reset the password.

Method 3: Create a log in script that has a blank password

To create a log in script that has a blank password, follow these steps:
  1. On server A, start SQL Server Management Studio, and then connect to the instance of SQL Server from which you moved the database.
  2. Open a new Query Editor window, and then run the following script.
    USE masterGOIF OBJECT_ID ('sp_hexadecimal') IS NOT NULL  DROP PROCEDURE sp_hexadecimalGOCREATE PROCEDURE sp_hexadecimal    @binvalue varbinary(256),    @hexvalue varchar (514) OUTPUTASDECLARE @charvalue varchar (514)DECLARE @i intDECLARE @length intDECLARE @hexstring char(16)SELECT @charvalue = '0x'SELECT @i = 1SELECT @length = DATALENGTH (@binvalue)SELECT @hexstring = '0123456789ABCDEF'WHILE (@i <= @length)BEGIN  DECLARE @tempint int  DECLARE @firstint int  DECLARE @secondint int  SELECT @tempint = CONVERT(int, SUBSTRING(@binvalue,@i,1))  SELECT @firstint = FLOOR(@tempint/16)  SELECT @secondint = @tempint - (@firstint*16)  SELECT @charvalue = @charvalue +    SUBSTRING(@hexstring, @firstint+1, 1) +    SUBSTRING(@hexstring, @secondint+1, 1)  SELECT @i = @i + 1ENDSELECT @hexvalue = @charvalueGO IF OBJECT_ID ('sp_help_revlogin') IS NOT NULL  DROP PROCEDURE sp_help_revloginGOCREATE PROCEDURE sp_help_revlogin @login_name sysname = NULL ASDECLARE @name sysnameDECLARE @type varchar (1)DECLARE @hasaccess intDECLARE @denylogin intDECLARE @is_disabled intDECLARE @PWD_varbinary  varbinary (256)DECLARE @PWD_string  varchar (514)DECLARE @SID_varbinary varbinary (85)DECLARE @SID_string varchar (514)DECLARE @tmpstr  varchar (1024)DECLARE @is_policy_checked varchar (3)DECLARE @is_expiration_checked varchar (3)DECLARE @defaultdb sysname IF (@login_name IS NULL)  DECLARE login_curs CURSOR FOR      SELECT p.sid, p.name, p.type, p.is_disabled, p.default_database_name, l.hasaccess, l.denylogin FROM sys.server_principals p LEFT JOIN sys.syslogins l      ON ( l.name = p.name ) WHERE p.type IN ( 'S', 'G', 'U' ) AND p.name <> 'sa'ELSE  DECLARE login_curs CURSOR FOR      SELECT p.sid, p.name, p.type, p.is_disabled, p.default_database_name, l.hasaccess, l.denylogin FROM sys.server_principals p LEFT JOIN sys.syslogins l      ON ( l.name = p.name ) WHERE p.type IN ( 'S', 'G', 'U' ) AND p.name = @login_nameOPEN login_cursFETCH NEXT FROM login_curs INTO @SID_varbinary, @name, @type, @is_disabled, @defaultdb, @hasaccess, @denyloginIF (@@fetch_status = -1)BEGIN  PRINT 'No login(s) found.'  CLOSE login_curs  DEALLOCATE login_curs  RETURN -1ENDSET @tmpstr = '/* sp_help_revlogin script 'PRINT @tmpstrSET @tmpstr = '** Generated ' + CONVERT (varchar, GETDATE()) + ' on ' + @@SERVERNAME + ' */'PRINT @tmpstrPRINT ''WHILE (@@fetch_status <> -1)BEGIN  IF (@@fetch_status <> -2)  BEGIN    PRINT ''    SET @tmpstr = '-- Login: ' + @name    PRINT @tmpstr    IF (@type IN ( 'G', 'U'))    BEGIN -- NT authenticated account/group      SET @tmpstr = 'CREATE LOGIN ' + QUOTENAME( @name ) + ' FROM WINDOWS WITH DEFAULT_DATABASE = [' + @defaultdb + ']'    END    ELSE BEGIN -- SQL Server authentication        -- obtain password and sid            SET @PWD_varbinary = CAST( LOGINPROPERTY( @name, 'PasswordHash' ) AS varbinary (256) )        EXEC sp_hexadecimal @PWD_varbinary, @PWD_string OUT        EXEC sp_hexadecimal @SID_varbinary,@SID_string OUT         -- obtain password policy state        SELECT @is_policy_checked = CASE is_policy_checked WHEN 1 THEN 'ON' WHEN 0 THEN 'OFF' ELSE NULL END FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE name = @name        SELECT @is_expiration_checked = CASE is_expiration_checked WHEN 1 THEN 'ON' WHEN 0 THEN 'OFF' ELSE NULL END FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE name = @name             SET @tmpstr = 'CREATE LOGIN ' + QUOTENAME( @name ) + ' WITH PASSWORD = ' + @PWD_string + ' HASHED, SID = ' + @SID_string + ', DEFAULT_DATABASE = [' + @defaultdb + ']'        IF ( @is_policy_checked IS NOT NULL )        BEGIN          SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + ', CHECK_POLICY = ' + @is_policy_checked        END        IF ( @is_expiration_checked IS NOT NULL )        BEGIN          SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + ', CHECK_EXPIRATION = ' + @is_expiration_checked        END    END    IF (@denylogin = 1)    BEGIN -- login is denied access      SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + '; DENY CONNECT SQL TO ' + QUOTENAME( @name )    END    ELSE IF (@hasaccess = 0)    BEGIN -- login exists but does not have access      SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + '; REVOKE CONNECT SQL TO ' + QUOTENAME( @name )    END    IF (@is_disabled = 1)    BEGIN -- login is disabled      SET @tmpstr = @tmpstr + '; ALTER LOGIN ' + QUOTENAME( @name ) + ' DISABLE'    END    PRINT @tmpstr  END  FETCH NEXT FROM login_curs INTO @SID_varbinary, @name, @type, @is_disabled, @defaultdb, @hasaccess, @denylogin   ENDCLOSE login_cursDEALLOCATE login_cursRETURN 0GO


    Note This script creates two stored procedures in the master database. The procedures are named sp_hexadecimal and sp_help_revlogin.
  3. Run the following statement: 
    EXEC sp_help_revlogin
    The output script that the sp_help_revlogin stored procedure generates is the login script. This login script creates the logins that have the original Security Identifier (SID) and the original password.
  4. On server B, start SQL Server Management Studio, and then connect to the instance of SQL Server to which you moved the database.

    Important Before you go to step 5, review the information in the "Remarks" section.
  5. Open a new Query Editor window, and then run the output script that is generated in step 3.

Remarks

Review the following information before you run the output script on the instance on server B:
  • If you try to create a new SQL Server 2012 login by using a pre-SQL Server 2000 login that is scripted, you receive the following error:
    Msg 15021, Level 16, State 2, Line 1
    Invalid value given for parameter PASSWORD. Specify a valid parameter value.
    Note You receive this error in SQL Server 2012 because of the 16-byte password hash that is supplied for the CREATE LOGIN and ALTER LOGIN statements.

    To resolve this issue on a server that is running SQL Server 2012, create a login that has a blank password. To do this, run the following script:
    CREATE LOGIN [Test] WITH PASSWORD = '', SID = 0x90FD605DCEFAE14FAB4D5EB0BBA1AECC, DEFAULT_DATABASE = [master], CHECK_POLICY = ON, CHECK_EXPIRATION = OFF

    After you create the login that has a blank password, the user can change the password at the next login attempt.
  • A password can be hashed in three ways:
    • VERSION_LEGACY: This hash is a 16-byte pre-SQL Server 2000 hash.
    • VERSION_SHA1: This hash is generated by using the SHA1 algorithm and is used in SQL Server 2000 through SQL Server 2008 R2.
    • VERSION_SHA2: This hash is generated by using the SHA2 512 algorithm and is used in SQL Server 2012.
  • In SQL Server 2008 R1 and in earlier versions, pre-SQL Server 2000 password hashes were supported. When a user logged in by using a password that used a pre-SQL Server 2000 hash, the hash was upgraded to use the SHA1 password hash.
  • If a user who has a password that uses the pre-SQL Server 2000 hash exists on a server that is running SQL Server 2008 R2, this means that the user has not logged in to that server.
  • Review the output script carefully. If server A and server B are in different domains, you have to change the output script. Then, you have to replace the original domain name by using the new domain name in the CREATE LOGIN statements. The integrated logins that are granted access in the new domain do not have the same SID as the logins in the original domain. Therefore, users are orphaned from these logins. For more information about how to resolve these orphaned users, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
    240872 How to resolve permission issues when you move a database between servers that are running SQL Server
    If server A and server B are in the same domain, the same SID is used. Therefore, users are unlikely to be orphaned.
  • In the output script, the logins are created by using the encrypted password. This is because of the HASHED argument in the CREATE LOGIN statement. This argument specifies that the password that is entered after the PASSWORD argument is already hashed.
  • By default, only a member of the sysadmin fixed server role can run a SELECT statement from the sys.server_principals view. Unless a member of the sysadmin fixed server role grants the necessary permissions to the users, the users cannot create or run the output script.
  • The steps in this article do not transfer the default database information for a particular login. This is because the default database may not always exist on server B. To define the default database for a login, use the ALTER LOGIN statement by passing in the login name and the default database as arguments.
  • Case-insensitive server A and case-sensitive server B: The sort order of server A may be case-insensitive, and the sort order of server B may be case-sensitive. In this case, users must type the passwords in all uppercase letters after you transfer the logins and the passwords to the instance on server B.

    Case-sensitive server A and case-insensitive server B: The sort order of server A may be case-sensitive, and the sort order of server B may be case-insensitive. In this case, users cannot log in by using the logins and the passwords that you transfer to the instance on server B unless one of the following conditions is true:
    • The original passwords contain no letters.
    • All letters in the original passwords are uppercase letters.
    Case-sensitive or case-insensitive on both servers: The sort order of both server A and server B may be case-sensitive, or the sort order of both server A and server B may be case-insensitive. In these cases, the users do not experience a problem.
  • A login that already is in the instance on server B may have a name that is the same as a name in the output script. In this case, you receive the following error message when you run the output script on the instance on server B:
    Msg 15025, Level 16, State 1, Line 1
    The server principal 'MyLogin' already exists.
    Similarly, a login that already is in the instance on server B may have a SID that is the same as a SID in the output script. In this case, you receive the following error message when you run the output script on the instance on server B:
    Msg 15433, Level 16, State 1, Line 1
    Supplied parameter sid is in use.
    Therefore, you must do the following:
    1. Review the output script carefully.
    2. Examine the contents of the sys.server_principals view in the instance on server B.
    3. Address these error messages as appropriate.
  • In SQL Server 2005, the SID for a login is used to implement database-level access. A login may have different SIDs in different databases on a server. In this case, the login can only access the database that has the SID that matches the SID in the sys.server_principals view. This problem can occur if the two databases are combined from different servers. To resolve this problem, manually remove the login from the database that has a SID mismatch by using the DROP USER statement. Then, add the login again by using the CREATE USER statement.
References
For more information about how to troubleshoot orphaned users, go to the Troubleshoot Orphaned Users Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) website.

For more information about the CREATE LOGIN statement, go to the CREATE LOGIN (Transact-SQL) MSDN website.

For more information about the ALTER LOGIN statement, go to the ALTER LOGIN (Transact-SQL) MSDN website.
Properties

Article ID: 918992 - Last Review: 07/12/2013 08:18:00 - Revision: 4.1

Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Standard Edition, Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Workgroup Edition, Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Developer Edition, Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Enterprise Edition, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Standard, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Workgroup, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Developer, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Enterprise, Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Standard, Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Developer, Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Enterprise

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