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Diacritical Marks Described and Explained

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This article was written about products for which Microsoft no longer offers support. Therefore, this article is offered "as is" and will no longer be updated.
Summary
Diacritical marks are symbols added to letters of the alphabet toindicate different pronunciation than the letters are usually given.This article describes the most common diacritical symbols, as well assome punctuation marks commonly used in French, Italian, and Spanish.

The examples given below are ANSI values, as shown in the Windows 3.1character map.
DiacriticalMark         Description-----------------------------------------------------------------------acute accent   A little diagonal line, used over a vowel. Usually               indicates which syllable is stressed. Slants from upper               right down to lower left. Used in French, Hungarian,               Portuguese, and Spanish.               Example: 0225 (accent over lowercase A)breve          (BREEV) A curved mark over a vowel. Used to indicate a               short vowel or a short or unstressed syllable.               (Sometimes referred to as a "smiley face.") Used in               Latin and Turkish.               No example in standard Windows character set.caret          (CARE-et) The "hat" symbol found on the "6" key. See               also circumflex. Used in French and Portuguese.               Example: 0226 (lowercase A with caret above)caron          See hacek.cedilla        (sih-DIL-uh) A tiny curved symbol, like a backward "c,"               placed at the bottom of a letter to indicate a               different pronunciation (as in the French word               "facade"). Used in French.               Example: 0231 (cedilla beneath lowercase C)circumflex     A mark such as the caret or tilde, placed over a vowel               to indicate various pronunciations. Used in French and               Polish.               Example: 0226 (circumflex above lowercase A)diaeresis      (deye-ER-uh-suhs) The two dots that appear over a vowel(or dieresis)  to show that the vowel is pronounced in a separate               syllable (as in the word "naive," with the diaeresis               over the i). Looks like an umlaut.               Example: 0239 (diaeresis above lowercase I)digraph        See ligature.edh            (ETH) A letter used in Icelandic and Old English to(or eth)       represent a particular sound, usually "th". Looks               like a "d" tilted to the left, with a horizontal line               across the vertical stroke of the d.               Example: 0240grave accent   (GRAYV or GRAHV) The diagonal line that appears above               a vowel. Slants from upper left to lower right (the               reverse of the acute accent). Used in Ancient Greek,               French, and Italian.               Example: 0224 (grave accent above lowercase A)hacek          (HAH-check) Looks like an upside-down caret, or a               small "v". Placed above vowels and some consonants.               Used in many Eastern European languages.               Example: 0154 (s with hacek above). Not available as               a separate character with any of the fonts that ship               with Microsoft Windows.Hungarian      Two acute accents or prime marks. Used above a letter,umlaut         usually O or U. Used in Hungarian.               No example in ANSI character set.ligature       A character that resembles two characters joined               together, as in AE, fl, or OE. Used in Latin and               English.               Example: 0198 (uppercase AE ligature).macron         (MAY-krahn or MAH-kruhn) A horizontal line over a               vowel to indicate that the vowel is to be pronounced               stressed or long. Used in Latin.               Example: 0175. Available as a separate character               only.ogonek         A small mark placed beneath a letter. Generally under               E and A. Different reference books use different               marks. Used in Polish.               No example available in ANSI character set.Polish cedilla See ogonek.ring           Hollow circle above a vowel. Used mainly in(or volle)     Scandinavian languages.               Example: 0229 (lowercase a with ring above)tilde          Placed over a letter to denote the "nyuh" sound (as in               the Spanish word "senora," with the tilde over the n),               or over a vowel to indicate nasality (as in the               Portuguese word "irma," with the tilde over the a).               Example: 0227 (lowercase A with tilde above)umlaut         Two dots placed above a vowel to indicate a partial               assimilation to a succeeding sound. Used primarily in               German.               Example: 0252 (lowercase U with umlaut above)PunctuationMark         Description-----------------------------------------------------------------------ellipsis       Also called points of suspension; consists of three               periods set close together. Often used to indicate an               interruption or pause. Used mainly in French and               Spanish.               Example: three periods in a row.em dash        Looks like a long hyphen. Used like quotation marks.               Used mainly in French, Italian, and Spanish.               Example: 0151guillemet      (gee-yuh-MAY) Also called chevron. Looks like two               closely-spaced greater-than or less-than symbols. Used               like quotation marks. Used in French, Italian, and               Spanish.               Example: 0171 (open guillemets); 0187 (close               guillemets)				
References
Microsoft Bookshelf 1992

"The Chicago Manual of Style," Thirteenth Edition, pages 253-279, TheUniversity of Chicago Press, Chicago: 1982

"Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary," Merriam-Webster Inc.,Springfield, Massachusetts: 1990

"Words Into Type," Third Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey: 1974
winword winword2 special extended
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Article ID: 98999 - Last Review: 05/27/2014 02:35:00 - Revision: 2.0

  • Microsoft Windows 3.1 Standard Edition
  • KB98999
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