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Win32 Equivalents for C Run-Time Functions

This article was previously published under Q99456
SUMMARY
Many of the C Run-time functions have direct equivalents in the Win32application programming interface (API). This article lists the C Run-timefunctions by category with their Win32 equivalents or the word "none" if noequivalent exists.
MORE INFORMATION
NOTE: the functions that are followed by an asterisk (*) are part of the16-bit C Run-time only. Functions that are unique to the 32-bit C Run-timeare listed separately in the last section. All other functions are commonto both C Run-times.

Buffer Manipulation

   _memccpy                  none    memchr                   none    memcmp                   none    memcpy                   CopyMemory   _memicmp                  none    memmove                  MoveMemory    memset                   FillMemory, ZeroMemory   _swab                     none				

Character Classification

     isalnum                 IsCharAlphaNumeric     isalpha                 IsCharAlpha, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)   __isascii                 none     iscntrl                 none, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)   __iscsym                  none   __iscsymf                 none     isdigit                 none, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)     isgraph                 none     islower                 IsCharLower, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)     isprint                 none     ispunct                 none, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)     isspace                 none, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)     isupper                 IsCharUpper, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)     isxdigit                none, GetStringTypeW (Unicode)   __toascii                 none     tolower                 CharLower    _tolower                 none     toupper                 CharUpper    _toupper                 none				

Directory Control

   _chdir                    SetCurrentDirectory   _chdrive                  SetCurrentDirectory   _getcwd                   GetCurrentDirectory   _getdrive                 GetCurrentDirectory   _mkdir                    CreateDirectory   _rmdir                    RemoveDirectory   _searchenv                SearchPath				

File Handling

   _access                   none   _chmod                    SetFileAttributes   _chsize                   SetEndOfFile   _filelength               GetFileSize   _fstat                    See Note 5   _fullpath                 GetFullPathName   _get_osfhandle            none   _isatty                   GetFileType   _locking                  LockFileEx   _makepath                 none   _mktemp                   GetTempFileName   _open_osfhandle           none    remove                   DeleteFile    rename                   MoveFile   _setmode                  none   _splitpath                none   _stat                     none   _umask                    none   _unlink                   DeleteFile				

Creating Text Output Routines

   _displaycursor*           SetConsoleCursorInfo   _gettextcolor*            GetConsoleScreenBufferInfo   _gettextcursor*           GetConsoleCursorInfo   _gettextposition*         GetConsoleScreenBufferInfo   _gettextwindow*           GetConsoleWindowInfo   _outtext*                 WriteConsole   _scrolltextwindow*        ScrollConsoleScreenBuffer   _settextcolor*            SetConsoleTextAttribute   _settextcursor*           SetConsoleCursorInfo   _settextposition*         SetConsoleCursorPosition   _settextwindow*           SetConsoleWindowInfo   _wrapon*                  SetConsoleMode				

Stream Routines

    clearerr                 none    fclose                   CloseHandle   _fcloseall                none   _fdopen                   none    feof                     none    ferror                   none    fflush                   FlushFileBuffers    fgetc                    none   _fgetchar                 none    fgetpos                  none    fgets                    none   _fileno                   none   _flushall                 none    fopen                    CreateFile    fprintf                  none    fputc                    none   _fputchar                 none    fputs                    none    fread                    ReadFile    freopen (std handles)    SetStdHandle    fscanf                   none    fseek                    SetFilePointer    fsetpos                  SetFilePointer   _fsopen                   CreateFile    ftell                    SetFilePointer (check return value)    fwrite                   WriteFile    getc                     none    getchar                  none    gets                     none   _getw                     none    printf                   none    putc                     none    putchar                  none    puts                     none   _putw                     none    rewind                   SetFilePointer   _rmtmp                    none    scanf                    none    setbuf                   none    setvbuf                  none   _snprintf                 none    sprintf                  wsprintf    sscanf                   none   _tempnam                  GetTempFileName    tmpfile                  none    tmpnam                   GetTempFileName    ungetc                   none    vfprintf                 none    vprintf                  none   _vsnprintf                none    vsprintf                 wvsprintf				

Low-Level I/O

   _close                   _lclose, CloseHandle   _commit                   FlushFileBuffers   _creat                   _lcreat, CreateFile   _dup                      DuplicateHandle   _dup2                     none   _eof                      none   _lseek                   _llseek, SetFilePointer   _open                    _lopen, CreateFile   _read                    _lread, ReadFile   _sopen                    CreateFile   _tell                     SetFilePointer (check return value)   _write                   _lread				

Console and Port I/O Routines

   _cgets                    none   _cprintf                  none   _cputs                    none   _cscanf                   none   _getch                    ReadConsoleInput   _getche                   ReadConsoleInput   _inp                      none   _inpw                     none   _kbhit                    PeekConsoleInput   _outp                     none   _outpw                    none   _putch                    WriteConsoleInput   _ungetch                  none				

Memory Allocation

   _alloca                   none   _bfreeseg*                none   _bheapseg*                none    calloc                   GlobalAlloc   _expand                   none    free                     GlobalFree   _freect*                  GlobalMemoryStatus   _halloc*                  GlobalAlloc   _heapadd                  none   _heapchk                  none   _heapmin                  none   _heapset                  none   _heapwalk                 none   _hfree*                   GlobalFree    malloc                   GlobalAlloc   _memavl                   GlobalMemoryStatus   _memmax                   GlobalMemoryStatus   _msize*                   GlobalSize    realloc                  GlobalReAlloc   _set_new_handler          none   _set_hnew_handler*        none   _stackavail*              none				

Process and Environment Control Routines

    abort                    none    assert                   none    atexit                   none   _cexit                    none   _c_exit                   none   _exec functions           none    exit                     ExitProcess   _exit                     ExitProcess    getenv                   GetEnvironmentVariable   _getpid                   GetCurrentProcessId    longjmp                  none   _onexit                   none    perror                   FormatMessage   _putenv                   SetEnvironmentVariable    raise                    RaiseException    setjmp                   none    signal (ctrl-c only)     SetConsoleCtrlHandler   _spawn functions          CreateProcess    system                   CreateProcess				

String Manipulation

   strcat, wcscat            lstrcat   strchr, wcschr            none   strcmp, wcscmp            lstrcmp   strcpy, wcscpy            lstrcpy   strcspn, wcscspn          none  _strdup, _wcsdup           none   strerror                  FormatMessage  _strerror                  FormatMessage  _stricmp, _wcsicmp         lstrcmpi   strlen, wcslen            lstrlen  _strlwr, _wcslwr           CharLower, CharLowerBuffer   strncat, wcsncat          none   strncmp, wcsncmp          none   strncpy, wcsncpy          none  _strnicmp, _wcsnicmp       none  _strnset, _wcsnset         FillMemory, ZeroMemory   strpbrk, wcspbrk          none   strrchr, wcsrchr          none  _strrev, _wcsrev           none  _strset, _wcsset           FillMemory, ZeroMemory   strspn, wcsspn            none   strstr, wcsstr            none   strtok, wcstok            none  _strupr, _wcsupr           CharUpper, CharUpperBuffer				

MS-DOS Interface

  _bdos*                     none  _chain_intr*               none  _disable*                  none  _dos_allocmem*             GlobalAlloc  _dos_close*                CloseHandle  _dos_commit*               FlushFileBuffers  _dos_creat*                CreateFile  _dos_creatnew*             CreateFile  _dos_findfirst*            FindFirstFile  _dos_findnext*             FindNextFile  _dos_freemem*              GlobalFree  _dos_getdate*              GetSystemTime  _dos_getdiskfree*          GetDiskFreeSpace  _dos_getdrive*             GetCurrentDirectory  _dos_getfileattr*          GetFileAttributes  _dos_getftime*             GetFileTime  _dos_gettime*              GetSystemTime  _dos_getvect*              none  _dos_keep*                 none  _dos_open*                 OpenFile  _dos_read*                 ReadFile  _dos_setblock*             GlobalReAlloc  _dos_setdate*              SetSystemTime  _dos_setdrive*             SetCurrentDirectory  _dos_setfileattr*          SetFileAttributes  _dos_setftime*             SetFileTime  _dos_settime*              SetSystemTime  _dos_setvect*              none  _dos_write*                WriteFile  _dosexterr*                GetLastError  _enable*                   none  _FP_OFF*                   none  _FP_SEG*                   none  _harderr*                  See Note 1  _hardresume*               See Note 1  _hardretn*                 See Note 1  _int86*                    none  _int86x*                   none  _intdos*                   none  _intdosx*                  none  _segread*                  none				

Time

   asctime                   See Note 2   clock                     See Note 2   ctime                     See Note 2   difftime                  See Note 2   _ftime                    See Note 2   _getsystime               GetLocalTime   gmtime                    See Note 2   localtime                 See Note 2   mktime                    See Note 2   _strdate                  See Note 2   _strtime                  See Note 2   time                      See Note 2   _tzset                    See Note 2   _utime                    SetFileTime				

Virtual Memory Allocation

   _vfree*                   See Note 3   _vheapinit*               See Note 3   _vheapterm*               See Note 3   _vload*                   See Note 3   _vlock*                   See Note 3   _vlockcnt*                See Note 3   _vmalloc*                 See Note 3   _vmsize*                  See Note 3   _vrealloc*                See Note 3   _vunlock*                 See Note 3				

32-Bit C Run Time

   _beginthread              CreateThread   _cwait                    WaitForSingleObject w/ GetExitCodeProcess   _endthread                ExitThread   _findclose                FindClose   _findfirst                FindFirstFile   _findnext                 FindNextFile   _futime                   SetFileTime   _get_osfhandle            none   _open_osfhandle           none   _pclose                   See Note 4   _pipe                     CreatePipe   _popen                    See Note 4				


NOTE 1: The _harderr functions do not exist in the Win32 API. However, muchof their functionality is available through structured exception handling.

NOTE 2: The time functions are based on a format that is not used in Win32.There are specific Win32 time functions that are documented in the Helpfile.

NOTE 3: The virtual memory functions listed in this document are specificto the MS-DOS environment and were written to access memory beyond the 640Kof RAM available in MS-DOS. Because this limitation does not exist inWin32, the standard memory allocation functions should be used.

NOTE 4: While _pclose() and _popen() do not have direct Win32 equivalents,you can (with some work) simulate them with the following calls:
   _popen                     CreatePipe                              CreateProcess   _pclose                    WaitForSingleObject                              CloseHandle				
NOTE 5: GetFileInformationByHandle() is the Win32 equivalent for the_fstat() C Run-time function. However, GetFileInformationByHandle() is notsupported by Win32s version 1.1. It is supported in Win32s 1.2.GetFileSize(), GetFileAttributes(), GetFileTime(), and GetFileTitle() aresupported by Win32s 1.1 and 1.2.
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Article ID: 99456 - Last Review: 11/21/2006 15:47:43 - Revision: 3.1

Microsoft Win32 Application Programming Interface

  • KB99456
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