The current public phone system is based on analog signals usedprimarily for voice transmission. The Integrated Services DigitalNetwork (ISDN) specification is a digital replacement for the analogphone system. An ISDN phone system is similar to a computer network.Currently, to send data you must use a modem to convert from digitalsignals generated by computers to analog signals that can betransferred on analog phone lines. Since ISDN is digital, no modem isneeded.
Starting in the 1960's, phone carriers began to install digitalbackbone networks in their phone systems. ISDN extends this digitalnetwork to the consumer site. Some phone systems still do not providesupport for ISDN, but many do; contact your local phone carrier formore information. Windows NT Remote Access Service (RAS) supports ISDNfunctionality. This article discusses the following topics:
- ISDN at Hardware Level
- ISDN at Service Level
- Optimizing RAS on ISDN
- ISDN Setup Options
ISDN AT HARDWARE LEVEL
An ISDN network requires ISDN lines and adapters. Each ISDN line isdivided into one of the following categories:
- Two B-channels for voice and data that can transfer data at 64K BPS (bits per second) per channel.
- One D-channel for signaling and line control. This channel is used for out-of-band signaling for call setup. It is possible to transfer data on the D-channel also. The X.25 protocol is sometimes available over the D-channel. Currently, neither Digiboard nor Windows NT support this capability.
Digiboard makes three ISDN adapters that are supported by Windows NT:
- Digiboard PCIMAC ISA
- Digiboard PCIMAC/4 ISA. Expandable from 1 to 4 ports.
- Digiboard PCIMAC MCA
ISDN AT SERVICE LEVEL
There are two ISDN protocols: primary rate interface (PRI) and basicrate interface (BRI). Digiboard and Windows NT currently support onlyBRI. BRI uses two B-channels and one D-channel. The Europeanimplementation of PRI uses 32 B-channels, while the United Statesversion uses 23. PRI uses a different style of signaling and type ofinterface that is not compatible with BRI. PRI is more prevalent inEurope than in the United States at this time.
Currently Digiboard is the only company providing ISDN drivers forWindows NT and Windows NT Advanced Server. You can install theDigiboard drivers from the Networks option of Control Panel. ChooseAdd Adapter and select one of the three Digiboard adapters.
The driver is actually a network media access control (MAC) driver. Ittalks with the ISDN hardware on the bottom and exposes an NDIS 3.0interface on the top. The ISDN MAC driver binds with the RASHUB driveron top. RASHUB is then bound with the transport (that is, NBF).
The ISDN MAC driver does not use the Windows NT serial I/O driver and,therefore, does not need to work with the ASYNCMAC driver thatnormally converts between serial I/O and NDIS 3.0.
OPTIMIZING RAS ON ISDN
RAS can use one or more B-channels per connection. You can optimizeRAS for the maximum number of connections or the best throughput. Tomaximize the number of connections, use one B-channel per incomingcall. This transfers data at a rate of 64K per second. The 16K D-channel control is shared between the two B-channels, and controlinformation is passed over the D-channel so that the adapter knowswhat B-channel is being referenced.
You can maximize throughput by using multiple B-channels perconnection. (This will reduce the number of possible connections.) Ona one ISDN port Windows NT RAS client, you can transfer data using twoB-channels, giving you an effective rate of 128K BPS. If you have moreISDN ports available, as in the case of the Digiboard adapter that hasfour ports, you can increase the throughput even further:
4 <ISDN ports> * 2 <B-channels> * 64K BPS = 512K BPS
To do this, you need hardware support on both the client and serverside. The incoming call determines how many channels are used. Ifthere are not enough channels available, the call fails. (Currentlyyou cannot instruct the server to limit the number of B-channels touse per connection.)
Because of Digiboard's proprietary method of aggregating B-channels,Digiboard drivers cannot connect to other vendors' ISDN drivers.Currently there is no standard protocol for B-channel aggregation, buta group is putting one together. It is called Bandwidth On Demand(BONDING). If this becomes an industry standard, Digiboard may supportit in the future.
ISDN SETUP OPTIONS
ISDN Setup options for a RAS client can be found in the Remote Accessapplication and in the Networks portion of Control Panel.
From Remote Access, choose Add, Advanced, and ISDN for configurationoptions. The following options are available:
Determines the highest line type to try when initially dialing an ISDNconnection.
This enables RAS to attempt to use multiple line types. The followingnotes apply to this setting:
- Intermediate devices may not allow a connection to go through at a certain rate or line type.
- RAS first attempts to make the connection by using the line type specified (via the D-channel).
- If you enable Negotiate Protocol and an intermediate device rejects the line type, the call is terminated and a lower line type is tried.
- Attempt order: 64K digital, 56K digital, 56K voice.
- If 56K Voice is accepted, RAS still sends data, not voice. The connection only seems to be voice to the intermediate device.
- The server is reached after the intermediate device has accepted the line type. The RAS ISDN server then accepts that rate and does not need to be manually configured.
Enable Hardware Compression
This enables hardware compression on the ISDN card. This could allowthroughput speeds to be effectively doubled, depending on data type.For example: A two B-channel connection (2 * 64 BPS = 128 BPS) couldyield an effective BPS rate of over 200K.
Channels in Use
This indicates the number of B-channels that the client ISDNconnection should use.
From Control Panel, choose Networks, select the Digiboard driver inuse, and choose Configure. The following options are available:
This option is set to Disable by default. The driver can poll the cardusing a system timer instead of an interrupt request. Testing hasshown that this provides very good performance. Disabling the IRQ alsofrees an IRQ for another device to use. If you want to use an IRQ, itis software configurable.
This must match the switch settings on the card. Each ISDN card musthave a unique I\O address.
This address is software configurable. Shared memory is used totransfer data and can be shared between multiple Digiboard ISDN cards.
You must contact your local phone carrier to determine what switchtype to specify. There is no way the Digiboard driver or adapter canget this information from the switch service.
The following are the currently supported ISDN switch types:
- ATT (AT&T) - NI-1 (National ISDN-1) - NTI (Northern Telecom) - Generic (CCITT Standard) - Auto (Attempts auto-detection)
These settings vary depending on the ISDN line configuration. Youshould ask your local phone carrier for more information on thesesettings. The defaults are correct for an AT&T line.