# ROMAN function

This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the ROMAN  function in Microsoft Excel.

## Description

Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text.

## Syntax

ROMAN(number, [form])

The ROMAN function syntax has the following arguments:

• Number    Required. The Arabic numeral you want converted.

• Form    Optional. A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want. The roman numeral style ranges from Classic to Simplified, becoming more concise as the value of form increases. See the example following ROMAN(499,0) below.

Form

Type

0 or omitted

Classic.

1

More concise. See example below.

2

More concise. See example below.

3

More concise. See example below.

4

Simplified.

TRUE

Classic.

FALSE

Simplified.

## Remarks

• If number is negative, the #VALUE! error value is returned.

• If number is greater than 3999, the #VALUE! error value is returned.

## Example

Copy the example data in the following table, and paste it in cell A1 of a new Excel worksheet. For formulas to show results, select them, press F2, and then press Enter. If you need to, you can adjust the column widths to see all the data.

Formula

Description (Result)

Result

=ROMAN(499,0)

Classic roman numeral style for 499 (CDXCIX)

CDXCIX

=ROMAN(499,1)

More concise version for 499 (LDVLIV)

LDVLIV

=ROMAN(499,2)

More concise version for 499 (XDIX)

XDIX

=ROMAN(499,3)

More concise version for 499 (VDIV)

VDIV

=ROMAN(499,4)

Simplified version for 499 (ID)

ID