How To General Bit Manipulation Routines

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This article outlines routines to set or reference individual bits in both a variable and an array.

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This article provides a set of general bit-manipulation routines for use in VBA code. NOTE: You should write a Visual C or C++ DLL to do bit manipulation if you require high performance. The routines are:

Name Description

BitMask Returns a mask used by the other routines to set or test
the value of a bit in a variable.

BitSet Turns a bit "on" or "off".

BitFlip Changes the state of a bit.

BitTest Returns the state of a bit.

ArrayBitSet Turns a bit "on" or "off".

ArrayBitFlip Changes the state of a bit.

ArrayBitTest Returns the state of a bit.

The Array routines assume 32 bits per element, starting with bits 0..31 in the lowest element, bits 32..63 in the second element, and so forth. The array does not have to be 0-based. If you specify a bit number that falls outside the bounds of the array, the operation leaves the data unchanged.

The routines have one or more of the following parameters:

X A Long value containing 32 bits to be manipulated.

A() An array containing bits to be manipulated.

Value TRUE to set a bit, FALSE to reset a bit.

N A number indicating the bit to manipulate. In the case of a
single Long variable, valid ranges are 0..31. In the case of an
array, valid values are 0..(number of elements * 32) - 1. Any
value of N outside this range is ignored. In the case of a
function, a FALSE is returned.

The BitTest and ArrayBitTest functions return TRUE (-1) if the bit is 1 and FALSE (0) if the bit is 0 (zero).

Sample Code

  1. Create a new project and add the following code to a module:

          Function BitMask(ByVal N As Long) As Long
    Dim I As Long, Mask As Long
    If N < 0 Or N > 31 Then
    BitMask = 0
    ElseIf N = 31 Then
    BitMask = &H80000000
    Mask = 1
    For I = 1 To N
    Mask = Mask + Mask
    Next I
    BitMask = Mask
    End If
    End Function

    Sub BitSet(X As Long, ByVal N As Long, ByVal Value As Boolean)
    If Value Then
    X = X Or BitMask(N)
    X = X And Not BitMask(N)
    End If
    End Sub

    Sub BitFlip(X As Long, ByVal N As Long)
    X = X Xor BitMask(N)
    End Sub

    Function BitTest(X As Long, ByVal N As Long) As Boolean
    ' Return False if invalid N
    BitTest = (X And BitMask(N)) <> 0
    End Function

    Sub ArrayBitSet(A() As Long, ByVal N As Long, _
    ByVal Value As Boolean)
    Dim Element As Integer
    Element = N \ 32 + LBound(A)
    If Element <= UBound(A) And N >= 0 Then
    BitSet A(Element), N Mod 32, Value
    End If
    End Sub

    Sub ArrayBitFlip(A() As Long, ByVal N As Long)
    Dim Element As Integer
    Element = N \ 32 + LBound(A)
    If Element <= UBound(A) And N >= 0 Then
    BitFlip A(Element), N Mod 32
    End If
    End Sub

    Function ArrayBitTest(A() As Long, ByVal N As Long) As Boolean
    ' Returns False if invalid N.
    Dim Element As Integer
    Element = N \ 32 + LBound(A)
    If Element <= UBound(A) And N >= 0 Then
    ArrayBitTest = BitTest(A(Element), N Mod 32)
    ArrayBitTest = False
    End If
    End Function
  2. You can the use the functions in code as follows. Add the following code to the module:

          Sub Main()
    Dim Bits As Long, aBits(0 To 2) As Long
    Bits = &H8000C000&
    BitSet Bits, 5, True
    BitSet Bits, 15, False
    ArrayBitSet aBits(), 45, True
    Debug.Print Hex$(Bits), BitTest(Bits, 4)
    Debug.Print Hex$(aBits(0)), Hex$(aBits(1)), Hex$(aBits(2))
    End Sub
  3. Run the procedure "Main".

    RESULTS: The debug window displays the following data.

    80004020 FALSE
    0 2000 0


For additional information about getting help with Visual Basic for Applications, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

163435 VBA: Programming Resources for Visual Basic for Applications


Id. de artículo: 185554 - Última revisión: 07/13/2009 - Revisión: 1