How To Converting Colors Between RGB and HLS (HBS)

Summary

The code fragment below converts colors between RGB (Red, Green, Blue) and HLS/HBS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation/Hue, Brightness, Saturation).

More Information

RGBtoHLS() takes a DWORD RGB value, translates it to HLS, and stores the results in the global vars H, L, and S. HLStoRGB takes the current values of H, L, and S and returns the equivalent value in an RGB DWORD. The vars H, L, and S are only written to by:

  1. RGBtoHLS (initialization)
  2. The scroll bar handlers
A point of reference for the algorithms is Foley and Van Dam, "Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics," Pages 618-19. Their algorithm is in floating point. CHART implements a less general (hardwired ranges) integral algorithm.


There are potential round-off errors throughout this sample. ((0.5 + x)/y) without floating point is phrased ((x + (y/2))/y), yielding a very small round-off error. This makes many of the following divisions look strange.
   */ 
#define HLSMAX RANGE /* H,L, and S vary over 0-HLSMAX */
#define RGBMAX 255 /* R,G, and B vary over 0-RGBMAX */
/* HLSMAX BEST IF DIVISIBLE BY 6 */
/* RGBMAX, HLSMAX must each fit in a byte. */

/* Hue is undefined if Saturation is 0 (grey-scale) */
/* This value determines where the Hue scrollbar is */
/* initially set for achromatic colors */
#define UNDEFINED (HLSMAX*2/3)

void RGBtoHLS(lRGBColor)

DWORD lRGBColor;
{
WORD R,G,B; /* input RGB values */
BYTE cMax,cMin; /* max and min RGB values */
WORD Rdelta,Gdelta,Bdelta; /* intermediate value: % of spread from max

*/
/* get R, G, and B out of DWORD */
R = GetRValue(lRGBColor);
G = GetGValue(lRGBColor);
B = GetBValue(lRGBColor);

/* calculate lightness */
cMax = max( max(R,G), B);
cMin = min( min(R,G), B);
L = ( ((cMax+cMin)*HLSMAX) + RGBMAX )/(2*RGBMAX);

if (cMax == cMin) { /* r=g=b --> achromatic case */
S = 0; /* saturation */
H = UNDEFINED; /* hue */
}
else { /* chromatic case */
/* saturation */
if (L <= (HLSMAX/2))
S = ( ((cMax-cMin)*HLSMAX) + ((cMax+cMin)/2) ) / (cMax+cMin);
else
S = ( ((cMax-cMin)*HLSMAX) + ((2*RGBMAX-cMax-cMin)/2) )
/ (2*RGBMAX-cMax-cMin);

/* hue */
Rdelta = ( ((cMax-R)*(HLSMAX/6)) + ((cMax-cMin)/2) ) / (cMax-cMin);
Gdelta = ( ((cMax-G)*(HLSMAX/6)) + ((cMax-cMin)/2) ) / (cMax-cMin);
Bdelta = ( ((cMax-B)*(HLSMAX/6)) + ((cMax-cMin)/2) ) / (cMax-cMin);

if (R == cMax)
H = Bdelta - Gdelta;
else if (G == cMax)
H = (HLSMAX/3) + Rdelta - Bdelta;
else /* B == cMax */
H = ((2*HLSMAX)/3) + Gdelta - Rdelta;

if (H < 0)
H += HLSMAX;
if (H > HLSMAX)
H -= HLSMAX;
}
}
/* utility routine for HLStoRGB */
WORD HueToRGB(n1,n2,hue)
WORD n1;
WORD n2;
WORD hue;
{
/* range check: note values passed add/subtract thirds of range */
if (hue < 0)
hue += HLSMAX;

if (hue > HLSMAX)
hue -= HLSMAX;

/* return r,g, or b value from this tridrant */
if (hue < (HLSMAX/6))
return ( n1 + (((n2-n1)*hue+(HLSMAX/12))/(HLSMAX/6)) );
if (hue < (HLSMAX/2))
return ( n2 );
if (hue < ((HLSMAX*2)/3))
return ( n1 + (((n2-n1)*(((HLSMAX*2)/3)-hue)+(HLSMAX/12))/(HLSMAX/6))
);
else
return ( n1 );
}

DWORD HLStoRGB(hue,lum,sat)
WORD hue;
WORD lum;
WORD sat;
{
WORD R,G,B; /* RGB component values */
WORD Magic1,Magic2; /* calculated magic numbers (really!) */

if (sat == 0) { /* achromatic case */
R=G=B=(lum*RGBMAX)/HLSMAX;
if (hue != UNDEFINED) {
/* ERROR */
}
}
else { /* chromatic case */
/* set up magic numbers */
if (lum <= (HLSMAX/2))
Magic2 = (lum*(HLSMAX + sat) + (HLSMAX/2))/HLSMAX;
else
Magic2 = lum + sat - ((lum*sat) + (HLSMAX/2))/HLSMAX;
Magic1 = 2*lum-Magic2;

/* get RGB, change units from HLSMAX to RGBMAX */
R = (HueToRGB(Magic1,Magic2,hue+(HLSMAX/3))*RGBMAX +
(HLSMAX/2))/HLSMAX;
G = (HueToRGB(Magic1,Magic2,hue)*RGBMAX + (HLSMAX/2)) / HLSMAX;
B = (HueToRGB(Magic1,Magic2,hue-(HLSMAX/3))*RGBMAX +
(HLSMAX/2))/HLSMAX;
}
return(RGB(R,G,B));
}
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ID članka: 29240 - posljednja izmjena: 21. stu 2006. - verzija: 1

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