Como efectuar ping a um endereço IP com o Visual Basic utilizando ICMP

Este artigo foi arquivado. Este artigo é oferecido "tal como está" e deixará de ser actualizado.
Sumário
Este artigo passo-a-passo descreve como efectuar o ping a um endereço IP (Internet Protocol) remoto utilizando o Visual Basic 6.0 e o ficheiro Icmp.dll.

Utilizar o ICMP para efectuar um ping no Visual Basic

  1. Inicie o Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0.
  2. Na caixa de diálogo New Project, clique em Standard EXE e, em seguida, clique em Open. O Visual Basic Design Editor é aberto e o Form1 é carregado.
  3. Para adicionar um novo módulo a este projecto, clique com o botão direito do rato em Project1.vbp no Project Explorer, aponte para Add e, em seguida, clique em Module.
  4. Na caixa de diálogo Add Module, clique em Open. O módulo Module1.bas é adicionado ao projecto e é aberto na janela Code Editor.
  5. Na parte superior da janela Code Editor do Module1, adicione as seguintes constantes e declaração de função:
    Option Explicit'Icmp constants converted from'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wmisdk/wmi/win32_pingstatus.aspPrivate Const ICMP_SUCCESS As Long = 0Private Const ICMP_STATUS_BUFFER_TO_SMALL = 11001                   'Buffer Too SmallPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_NET_UNREACH = 11002           'Destination Net UnreachablePrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_HOST_UNREACH = 11003          'Destination Host UnreachablePrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PROTOCOL_UNREACH = 11004      'Destination Protocol UnreachablePrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PORT_UNREACH = 11005          'Destination Port UnreachablePrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_NO_RESOURCE = 11006                       'No ResourcesPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_OPTION = 11007                        'Bad OptionPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_HARDWARE_ERROR = 11008                    'Hardware ErrorPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_LARGE_PACKET = 11009                      'Packet Too BigPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_REQUEST_TIMED_OUT = 11010                 'Request Timed OutPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_REQUEST = 11011                       'Bad RequestPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_ROUTE = 11012                         'Bad RoutePrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_TRANSIT = 11013               'TimeToLive Expired TransitPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_REASSEMBLY = 11014            'TimeToLive Expired ReassemblyPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_PARAMETER = 11015                         'Parameter ProblemPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_SOURCE_QUENCH = 11016                     'Source QuenchPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_OPTION_TOO_BIG = 11017                    'Option Too BigPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_BAD_DESTINATION = 11018                   'Bad DestinationPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_NEGOTIATING_IPSEC = 11032                 'Negotiating IPSECPrivate Const ICMP_STATUS_GENERAL_FAILURE = 11050                   'General FailurePublic Const WINSOCK_ERROR = "Windows Sockets not responding correctly."Public Const INADDR_NONE As Long = &HFFFFFFFFPublic Const WSA_SUCCESS = 0Public Const WS_VERSION_REQD As Long = &H101'Clean up sockets.'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512Private Declare Function WSACleanup Lib "WSOCK32.DLL" () As Long'Open the socket connection.'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512Private Declare Function WSAStartup Lib "WSOCK32.DLL" (ByVal wVersionRequired As Long, lpWSADATA As WSADATA) As Long'Create a handle on which Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) requests can be issued.'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcesdkr/htm/_wcesdk_icmpcreatefile.aspPrivate Declare Function IcmpCreateFile Lib "icmp.dll" () As Long'Convert a string that contains an (Ipv4) Internet Protocol dotted address into a correct address.'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/winsock/wsapiref_4esy.aspPrivate Declare Function inet_addr Lib "WSOCK32.DLL" (ByVal cp As String) As Long'Close an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) handle that IcmpCreateFile opens.'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcesdkr/htm/_wcesdk_icmpclosehandle.aspPrivate Declare Function IcmpCloseHandle Lib "icmp.dll" (ByVal IcmpHandle As Long) As Long'Information about the Windows Sockets implementation'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512Private Type WSADATA   wVersion As Integer   wHighVersion As Integer   szDescription(0 To 256) As Byte   szSystemStatus(0 To 128) As Byte   iMaxSockets As Long   iMaxUDPDG As Long   lpVendorInfo As LongEnd Type'Send an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request, and then return one or more replies.'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcetcpip/htm/cerefIcmpSendEcho.aspPrivate Declare Function IcmpSendEcho Lib "icmp.dll" _   (ByVal IcmpHandle As Long, _    ByVal DestinationAddress As Long, _    ByVal RequestData As String, _    ByVal RequestSize As Long, _    ByVal RequestOptions As Long, _    ReplyBuffer As ICMP_ECHO_REPLY, _    ByVal ReplySize As Long, _    ByVal Timeout As Long) As Long 'This structure describes the options that will be included in the header of an IP packet.'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcetcpip/htm/cerefIP_OPTION_INFORMATION.aspPrivate Type IP_OPTION_INFORMATION   Ttl             As Byte   Tos             As Byte   Flags           As Byte   OptionsSize     As Byte   OptionsData     As LongEnd Type'This structure describes the data that is returned in response to an echo request.'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wcesdkr/htm/_wcesdk_icmp_echo_reply.aspPublic Type ICMP_ECHO_REPLY   address         As Long   Status          As Long   RoundTripTime   As Long   DataSize        As Long   Reserved        As Integer   ptrData                 As Long   Options        As IP_OPTION_INFORMATION   Data            As String * 250End Type'-- Ping a string representation of an IP address.' -- Return a reply.' -- Return long code.Public Function ping(sAddress As String, Reply As ICMP_ECHO_REPLY) As LongDim hIcmp As LongDim lAddress As LongDim lTimeOut As LongDim StringToSend As String'Short string of data to sendStringToSend = "hello"'ICMP (ping) timeoutlTimeOut = 1000 'ms'Convert string address to a long representation.lAddress = inet_addr(sAddress)If (lAddress <> -1) And (lAddress <> 0) Then            'Create the handle for ICMP requests.    hIcmp = IcmpCreateFile()        If hIcmp Then        'Ping the destination IP address.        Call IcmpSendEcho(hIcmp, lAddress, StringToSend, Len(StringToSend), 0, Reply, Len(Reply), lTimeOut)        'Reply status        ping = Reply.Status                'Close the Icmp handle.        IcmpCloseHandle hIcmp    Else        Debug.Print "failure opening icmp handle."        ping = -1    End IfElse    ping = -1End IfEnd Function'Clean up the sockets.'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512Public Sub SocketsCleanup()      WSACleanup    End Sub'Get the sockets ready.'http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q154512Public Function SocketsInitialize() As Boolean   Dim WSAD As WSADATA   SocketsInitialize = WSAStartup(WS_VERSION_REQD, WSAD) = ICMP_SUCCESSEnd Function'Convert the ping response to a message that you can read easily from constants.'For more information about these constants, visit the following Microsoft Web site: 'http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/wmisdk/wmi/win32_pingstatus.aspPublic Function EvaluatePingResponse(PingResponse As Long) As String  Select Case PingResponse      'Success  Case ICMP_SUCCESS: EvaluatePingResponse = "Success!"              'Some error occurred  Case ICMP_STATUS_BUFFER_TO_SMALL:    EvaluatePingResponse = "Buffer Too Small"  Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_NET_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Net Unreachable"  Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_HOST_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Host Unreachable"  Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PROTOCOL_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Protocol Unreachable"  Case ICMP_STATUS_DESTINATION_PORT_UNREACH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Destination Port Unreachable"  Case ICMP_STATUS_NO_RESOURCE: EvaluatePingResponse = "No Resources"  Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_OPTION: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Option"  Case ICMP_STATUS_HARDWARE_ERROR: EvaluatePingResponse = "Hardware Error"  Case ICMP_STATUS_LARGE_PACKET: EvaluatePingResponse = "Packet Too Big"  Case ICMP_STATUS_REQUEST_TIMED_OUT: EvaluatePingResponse = "Request Timed Out"  Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_REQUEST: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Request"  Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_ROUTE: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Route"  Case ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_TRANSIT: EvaluatePingResponse = "TimeToLive Expired Transit"  Case ICMP_STATUS_TTL_EXPIRED_REASSEMBLY: EvaluatePingResponse = "TimeToLive Expired Reassembly"  Case ICMP_STATUS_PARAMETER: EvaluatePingResponse = "Parameter Problem"  Case ICMP_STATUS_SOURCE_QUENCH: EvaluatePingResponse = "Source Quench"  Case ICMP_STATUS_OPTION_TOO_BIG: EvaluatePingResponse = "Option Too Big"  Case ICMP_STATUS_BAD_DESTINATION: EvaluatePingResponse = "Bad Destination"  Case ICMP_STATUS_NEGOTIATING_IPSEC: EvaluatePingResponse = "Negotiating IPSEC"  Case ICMP_STATUS_GENERAL_FAILURE: EvaluatePingResponse = "General Failure"              'Unknown error occurred  Case Else: EvaluatePingResponse = "Unknown Response"          End SelectEnd Function						
    Nota Tome cuidado com a moldagem de texto quando copiar este código para o projecto. Este código fornece as funções para aceder ao ficheiro Icmp.dll. Consulte os comentários inline para obter uma descrição das constantes, declarações e chamadas de função.
  6. No Project Explorer, clique com o botão direito do rato em Form1 e, em seguida, clique em View Object. O Form1 é carregado na janela Designer.
  7. Faça duplo clique no corpo de Form1. A janela Code Editor é aberta com o código seguinte:
    Private Sub Form_Load()End Sub					
  8. Substitua o código existente no método Form_Load pelo código seguinte:
    Private Sub Form_Load()   Dim Reply As ICMP_ECHO_REPLY   Dim lngSuccess As Long   Dim strIPAddress As String      'Get the sockets ready.   If SocketsInitialize() Then          'Address to ping    strIPAddress = "192.168.1.1"        'Ping the IP that is passing the address and get a reply.    lngSuccess = ping(strIPAddress, Reply)          'Display the results.    Debug.Print "Address to Ping: " & strIPAddress    Debug.Print "Raw ICMP code: " & lngSuccess    Debug.Print "Ping Response Message : " & EvaluatePingResponse(lngSuccess)    Debug.Print "Time : " & Reply.RoundTripTime & " ms"          'Clean up the sockets.    SocketsCleanup         Else      'Winsock error failure, initializing the sockets.   Debug.Print WINSOCK_ERROR      End If   End Sub					
  9. Localize as seguintes linhas de código:
        'Address to ping    strIPAddress = "192.168.1.1"						
    Altere o strIPAddress para o endereço IP ao qual pretenda efectuar o ping.
  10. Para guardar o projecto e os ficheiros associados, clique em Save Project no menu File.
  11. Note que os resultados do código são escritos na janela Immediate. Para verificar se a janela Immediate está aberta, clique em Immediate Window no menu View.
  12. Para testar este código, prima F5. Os resultados são apresentados na janela Immediate. Os resultados são semelhantes aos seguintes:
    Address to Ping: 192.168.1.1Raw ICMP code: 0Ping Response Message : Success!Time : 10 ms						
Nota Para efectuar ping a um nome de domínio, tem de o converter primeiro num endereço.Para obter mais informações, clique no número de artigo que se segue para visualizar o artigo na Base de Dados de Conhecimento Microsoft:
154512 SAMPLE: Winsock.exe getting HostAddress by using Windows Sockets
Propriedades

ID do Artigo: 300197 - Última Revisão: 12/06/2015 02:59:25 - Revisão: 1.1

  • Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Enterprise Edition
  • Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Professional Edition
  • kbnosurvey kbarchive kbhowto kbhowtomaster KB300197
Esta informação foi útil?