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Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync lets devices synchronize with your Inbox, your Calendar, and other items that have dedicated Microsoft Exchange Server mailboxes. This article describes common issues with third-party devices that synchronize with Exchange by using Exchange ActiveSync. Among these devices are Android and iOS devices.
Exchange ActiveSync Protocol Licensees
(http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/legal/IntellectualProperty/IPLicensing/Programs/ExchangeActiveSyncProtocol.aspx)provide the Exchange ActiveSync software that is used on the third-party devices. Microsoft does not write the Exchange ActiveSync code for the licensees’ devices or services. Microsoft licenses patents to Exchange ActiveSync licensees. These patents are Microsoft intellectual property. Additionally, Microsoft provides public access to the Exchange ActiveSync protocol documentation
Note A protocol is a standard for communication between computers.
What Microsoft can do, and what third parties can doMicrosoft can help in investigations of issues that involve mobile devices that are manufactured by third-party vendors. However, the implementation of the Exchange ActiveSync protocol on such devices cannot be changed or updated by Microsoft.
Device-specific troubleshooting, updates to devices, and confirmation of causes of device-related issues can occur only through the device manufacturer. Additionally, some devices may not have a unified update strategy and may depend on carrier requests to create updates. Carriers then distribute those updates. Therefore, updates for specific device issues may not be timely.
Microsoft may direct customers to contact their mobile device vendor or mobile carrier for help. See the "References" section for more information about third-party support engagement methods. Microsoft Support is always open to collaborative troubleshooting if a vendor must be engaged.
How to become informed about mobile devicesWhen you evaluate the devices to be used in an Exchange Server organization that uses Exchange ActiveSync, you should make sure that you understand the features and capabilities of the devices. Not all devices support the same configuration options, and some devices may not support all features or versions of the Exchange ActiveSync protocol.
A community chart for Comparison of Exchange ActiveSync clients
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Exchange_ActiveSync_Clients)is available on Wikipedia. Administrators and help desk personnel should use public information and their own testing to understand device capabilities. To help address this, the Exchange team created a new Exchange ActiveSync Logo program
(http://blogs.technet.com/b/exchange/archive/2011/04/13/announcing-the-exchange-activesync-logo-program.aspx)for devices that use Exchange ActiveSync.
We will update this document as we identify new issues that apply to third-party devices that use the Exchange ActiveSync protocol.
The following is a list of current issues that you may encounter when you use Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 or Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 together with third-party devices. If you are using Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 3 (SP3) or Exchange Server 2010 SP1 and are experiencing an issue that is not listed here, go to the Microsoft Support
We recommend that you update third-party devices to the latest software version. Be aware that some devices cannot be updated in some circumstances.
Users of iOS devices can update their devices to the latest version of the iOS software. For more information, go to the Apple iOS
The information and the solutions in this document represent the current view of Microsoft Corporation on these issues as of the date of publication. These solutions are available through Microsoft or through a third-party provider. Microsoft does not specifically recommend any third-party provider or third-party solution that this article might describe. There might also be other third-party providers or third-party solutions that this article does not describe. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, this information should not be interpreted to be a commitment by Microsoft. Microsoft cannot guarantee or endorse the accuracy of any information or of any solution that is presented by Microsoft or by any mentioned third-party provider.
Microsoft makes no warranties and excludes all representations, warranties, and conditions whether express, implied, or statutory. These include but are not limited to representations, warranties, or conditions of title, non-infringement, satisfactory condition, merchantability, and fitness for a particular purpose, with regard to any service, solution, product, or any other materials or information. In no event will Microsoft be liable for any third-party solution that this article mentions.
The issues that are described in this article are divided into the following categories:
1. Automatic meeting processing
Issue 1.12 - Appointment in Outlook or OWA is missing on iOS deviceWhen a user syncs a mailbox by using an iOS device, the calendar on the device may be missing one or more appointments. These appointments are available when you view the calendar from Outlook or OWA. There may also be duplicate instances of the appointment in the calendar if the appointment is accepted from the device.
This issue is described in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/3012590)Instance of calendar appointment is missing or duplicated on ActiveSync client
Apply the iOS 8.2 update. Apple has documented the issue in the following article from the Apple Knowledge Base:
Issue 1.11 - Known calendaring issues with iOS 8.x and iOS 7.x devicesUsers of iOS 7.0.4, iOS 7.1.2, iOS 8.0.1, iOS 8.0.2, and iOS 8.1 devices (these are known collectively as 7.x and 8.x devices) may experience issues in which calendar items may be converted to plain text, may be truncated, or may generate multiple repair update messages. These issues were diagnosed as requiring changes to the iOS implementation of the Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync protocol.
Apple was made aware of this issue, and customers who experience any of the symptoms that are described here should contact Apple for help.
For more information, see the following articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/3015401)Known calendaring issues with iOS 8.x and iOS 7.x devices
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/3019798)Repair update messages received for TimeZoneMatchCheck failures
Issue 1.10 - Meetings that are scheduled for the end of the month do not appear on an iOS deviceWhen a user syncs a mailbox by using an iOS device, and a recurring meeting is scheduled to occur on the 31st of every month, the meeting does not appear on the device for those months that do not have 31 days.
iOS does not honor the 31st-day recurrence pattern in the way that Outlook does. When a month does not have 31 days, Outlook displays the recurring meeting in the calendar on the last day of the month. However, iOS displays only those occurrences that land exactly on the 31st. This behavior also occurs with recurring meetings for the 29th-day and 30th-day recurrence patterns.
Issue 1.9 - An appointment does not update when you use Outlook in cached mode and room mailbox is an attendeeThe following conditions cause an appointment not to update on an iOS device:
The client receives multiple responses for this appointment from Exchange. The first response has a later-modified time stamp than the second response that contains the new time for the meeting. The client should always apply the changes from the latest Sync response for an item. The modified time stamp is an optional element and should not be considered authoritative.
The following are examples from the ActiveSync mailbox log for a device:
First log entry
<Exceptions xmlns="Calendar:"> <Exception> <DtStamp>20131112T184410Z</DtStamp> <StartTime>20131128T170000Z</StartTime> <EndTime>20131128T180000Z</EndTime> <ExceptionStartTime>20131128T170000Z</ExceptionStartTime> <MeetingStatus>1</MeetingStatus> </Exception> </Exceptions>
Second log entry
<Exceptions xmlns="Calendar:"> <Exception> <DtStamp>20131112T184334Z</DtStamp> <StartTime>20131128T190000Z</StartTime> <EndTime>20131128T200000Z</EndTime> <ExceptionStartTime>20131128T170000Z</ExceptionStartTime> <Attendees> <Attendee> <Email bytes="30"/> <Name bytes="12"/> <AttendeeStatus>0</AttendeeStatus> <AttendeeType>1</AttendeeType> </Attendee> <Attendee> <Email bytes="30"/> <Name bytes="21"/> <AttendeeStatus>0</AttendeeStatus> <AttendeeType>3</AttendeeType> </Attendee> </Attendees> <MeetingStatus>1</MeetingStatus> </Exception> </Exceptions>
Apply the iOS 8.2 update. Apple has documented this issue in the following article from the Apple Knowledge Base:
If this issue is not resolved by applying the iOS update, customers should remove the calendar from the list of folders to synchronize, wait several minutes, and then add the calendar back to the list of folders to synchronize.
Issue 1.8 - Rapid growth in transaction logs, CPU use, and memory consumption in Exchange Server 2010 when a user syncs a mailbox by using an iOS 6.1-based or iOS 6.1.1-based deviceWhen a user syncs a mailbox by using an iOS 6.1-based or iOS 6.1.1-based device, Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Client Access server (CAS) and Mailbox (MBX) server resources are consumed, log growth becomes excessive, excessive growth in Recoverable Items may occur, and memory and CPU use may increase significantly. Server performance is affected.
Additionally, Microsoft Office 365 Exchange Online users receive an error message that resembles the following on an iOS 6.1-based or iOS 6.1.1-based device:
Cannot Get Mail
The connection to the server failed.
An issue with iOS 6.1 and iOS 6.1.1 cause a continuous stream of meeting responses to the Exchange server. This issue affects Exchange Server performance and adversely affects the device's battery life.
Apply the iOS 6.1.2 update. Apple has documented the issue in the following article from the Apple Knowledge Base:
iOS 6.1: Excess Exchange activity after accepting an exception to recurring calendar event
If this issue is not resolved by applying the iOS 6.1.2 update, customers should follow these steps:
Issue 1.7 - Meetings are missing on some mobile devices, but are present in OWA and OutlookWhen you create a recurring appointment or meeting, change a critical property in an occurrence in the series (for example, you change the date, time, or location), and then change the whole meeting series again, the item may not be updated on a device.
The change is reflected correctly in Outlook, but meeting organizers or attendees do not see the change reflected on their devices. The result is an apparent "missing appointment" on the device user's Calendar.
The devices use the Global Object Identifier (GOID) instead of the ServerID to track changes to the Calendar item for synchronization requests.
When the meeting series is changed, the same GOID is retained on the whole series. When the device receives the Delete request that the device receives when the series is changed is sent in a sync request that is separate from the change to the individual occurrence. Then, the device interprets the series change as a duplicate and does not process the update.
This issue was thought to be resolved in iOS 6.0. If this problem occurs with later versions, customers should contact Apple to investigate the issue.
Issue 1.6 - An appointment that is longer than 24 hours is changed to a multi-day All Day EventAssume that an appointment item's duration is longer than 24 hours and that the appointment is not marked as an All Day Event. In this case, Exchange ActiveSync changes the item on the device to a multi-day All Day Event. The next time that the device synchronizes with the mailbox, the change is propagated from the item on the device to the item on the Exchange Server 2010 mailbox.
To resolve this issue, install Update Rollup 1 for Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 2 (SP2). For more information, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(https://support.microsoft.com/kb/2549255/en-us/ )A meeting item displays incorrectly as multiple all-day events when you synchronize a mobile device on an Exchange Server 2010 mailbox
Issue 1.5 - Recurring Exchange Calendar events are deletedIn some cases, recurring Calendar events can be removed from both the iOS device and Exchange when the organizer cancels an event instance.
This issue is resolved by Apple iOS 4.3 and affects version 4.2.6 and earlier versions. For more information about this issue, go to the following Apple website:
iOS: Recurring Exchange calendar events deleted
Issue 1.4 - An All Day Flag is not set correctly on mobile devices when a meeting is scheduled across multiple daysMobile device clients do not treat a meeting request as an all-day event meeting request. Also, the All Day field is marked No.
This issue is resolved in Update Rollup 2 for Exchange 2007 Service Pack 3. For more information, see the following articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2201236)The "All Day" field is marked with "No" when you access a meeting request that has a duration time that is more than 24 hours by using a mobile client through ActiveSync in an Exchange Server 2007 environment
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2407025)Description of Update Rollup 2 for Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 3
Issue 1.3 - Your meeting response to the organizer is displayed as if it was sent by someone elseWhen you respond to an Exchange ActiveSync meeting invitation, the meeting organizer may see someone else's name displayed as having accepted the invitation instead of you.
Verify that the Apple iOS on your device is version 4.3 or a later version. For more information about the latest iOS version, go to the Apple iOS
(http://www.apple.com/ios)website. This issue was fixed by Apple in iOS 3.1. For more information, go to the following Apple website:
iPhone and iPod touch: My replies to Exchange ActiveSync invitations seem to come from someone else
Issue 1.2 - An attendee becomes the meeting organizerWhen you synchronize your iOS or Android device by using Exchange ActiveSync on an Exchange Server 2007 mailbox, you may unexpectedly become the organizer for a meeting to which you were invited. This does not change the meeting for all attendees.
This issue can occur if you change the reminder for a single occurrence of a recurring meeting on an iOS or Android device. There may be other changes to meeting items that cause the same problem.
Exchange Server 2007
This issue is resolved in Update Rollup 4 for Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 3. For more information, see the following Microsoft Knowledge Base article:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2521063)You are incorrectly displayed as a meeting organizer after you synchronize the meeting by using your mobile device in an Exchange Server 2007 environment
Note Affected meetings must be deleted, and replacement meetings must be created after the update is installed.
Current issues (all Exchange versions)
Recent issues that have similar symptoms were reported to and investigated by Microsoft. These issues can affect users on all versions of Exchange Server. Currently, Microsoft cannot reduce the effect of these new issues. We encourage users to work with their device vendors to find a solution to the problem.
One issue that can occur with Apple iOS 6 is documented in the following Microsoft Knowledge Base article:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2768774)Meeting in attendee’s Calendar loses track of the meeting organizer
This issue was reported since the release of iOS 6.0.1 to include devices that use iOS 6.1.3. Customers who experience this issue should contact Apple for help.
Issue 1.1 - A recurring meeting is removed from the calendar when the organizer cancels a single occurrenceAssume that you synchronize your iOS device by using Exchange ActiveSync on an Exchange Server 2007 mailbox. If the organizer cancels a single occurrence of a recurring meeting, the device may unexpectedly delete the whole recurring meeting.
SolutionFollow these steps:
iOS: Recurring Exchange calendar events deleted
2. Connectivity and synchronization failures
Issue 2.14 - Sender receives copy from Reply to All message
Exchange ActiveSync user receives a copy of a message when he or she clicks Reply to All to a message in the mailbox.
For more information, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(https://support.microsoft.com/kb/3012580/ )Senders receive a message copy after they click "Reply to All" in Exchange ActiveSync
Issue 2.13 - Items in a folder disappear and reappear on an iOS device
The items on an iOS device disappear for a short time and then reload automatically. This behavior may occur for any mail folder, calendar, or contacts.
The Exchange ActiveSync client sends a Sync command to Exchange with a synchronization key of 0. This key value re-initializes the sync state for the folder.
This behavior is by design.
For more information, please refer to the following article:
iOS: How to mitigate a full sync or reload of Exchange account data
Issue 2.12 - Android device cannot synchronize with ExchangeAfter the ActiveSync profile is configured, the device receives new items for an undetermined time and then stops updating.
The ActiveSync mailbox policy has a refresh policy defined. The device receives a response with status 143 - Error:PolicyRefresh. The device does not send a provision command as needed.
IIS log example:
Cmd=Sync&User=contoso%5Ce15&DeviceId=android1362622918557&DeviceType=Android&Log=PrxFrom:10.0.1.151_ V141_HH:mail.contoso.com_SmtpAdrs:e15%40contoso.com_NMS1_Fet78_TmTr:TID%3a18%3e%3e%5bID%3aH%5FEPR%2c Start%3a2%3a40%3a30+PM%2cEnd%3a2%3a40%3a30+PM%2cExcl%3a0+ms%2cChild%3a%5bNONE%5d%2c%5dTID%3a50%3e%3e %5bID%3aH%5FBPR%2cStart%3a2%3a40%3a30+PM%2cEnd%3a2%3a40%3a30+PM%2cExcl%3a15+ms%2cChild%3a%5bID%3aH%5 FRMBP%2cStart%3a2%3a40%3a30+PM%2cEnd%3a2%3a40%3a30+PM%2cExcl%3a0+ms%2cChild%3a%5bNONE%5d%2c%5d%2c%5d _Pk3609689902_DevOS:Android+4.1.2_S143_Error:PolicyRefresh_As:AllowedG_Mbx:CLT-E15-MBX1.contoso.local _Throttle0
Set the refresh interval for the ActiveSync mailbox policy to Unlimited.
Issue 2.11 - iOS device users cannot synchronize Exchange mailbox after the device is updated to iOS 7.0A user cannot synchronize his or her iOS device with a mailbox that is hosted on Exchange Server 2010 or Exchange Server 2013 after the iOS device is upgraded to iOS 7.0.
Exchange Server 2013
To resolve this issue in Exchange Server 2013, install the update that is described in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2859928)Description of Cumulative Update 2 for Exchange Server 2013
Exchange Server 2010
To resolve this issue in Exchange Server 2010, install the update rollup that is described in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2866475)Description of Update Rollup 2 for Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 3
Note Microsoft has documented the problem in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2851708)Cannot synchronize an Exchange mailbox after updating an Apple iOS device to iOS 7.0
Issue 2.10 - iOS device users are locked out of Active Directory accountsWhen a user changes the Active Directory account password, iOS devices prompt for the new password. When the user types the new password, the account is locked out.
To avoid this issue, upgrade the iOS device to iOS 7. For more information about this issue, go to the following Apple website:
iOS 6: Exchange sync may use old password
On the device, open the Settings panel, and then edit the profile to force the new password to be used by the iOS device on the next connection. Users who have multiple iOS devices should change the password on all the devices at the same time.
Note Restrictive lockout policies can be used as a method of denial of service by triggering a lockout on lots of accounts. IT administrators should consider alternatives such as a fine-grained password policy. For more information, see the following Microsoft TechNet topic:
Create a New Fine-Grained Password Policy
Issue 2.9 - A mobile device intermittently does not connect to Exchange OnlineWhen you try to synchronize a mobile device that is using Exchange ActiveSync with Microsoft Exchange Online, your device cannot connect. You may receive errors such as the following:
Cannot Get Mail The connection to the server failed. Cannot Send Mail An error occurred while delivering the message.
Unable to open server connection due to a security update
When a mobile device acts in a way that can adversely affect Exchange Online service performance, the device is put into an
Access Denied state for a short time. For example, this may occur when a device sends too many identical Sync commands to the service for a particular folder in a very short period.
Exchange Online has implemented Exchange ActiveSync Throttling to manage and maintain the optimal performance of the Office 365 Exchange Online environment.
See the following article for more information. Contact the mobile device vendor for help with the investigation.
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2748176/en-us)A mobile device intermittently fails to connect to Exchange Online
Issue 2.8 - High CPU usage when you synchronize a mobile device to an Exchange Server CASSolution
We believe this issue is resolved in iOS 6. For confirmation or additional investigation of this issue, contact the device manufacturer.
Note We have documented the problem and present potential mitigation workarounds in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2711053/en-us)High CPU usage when you synchronize a mobile device to an Exchange Server CAS
Issue 2.7 - Duplicate contacts are created when you synchronize a mobile device by using Exchange ActiveSyncSolution
Microsoft believes this issue is resolved in iOS 6. For confirmation or additional investigation of this issue, contact the device manufacturer.
Note We have documented the problem and suggest a temporary workaround in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base online:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2711181/en-us)Duplicate contacts are created when you synchronize a mobile device by using Exchange ActiveSync
Issue 2.6 - ActiveSync does not work for mobile device users who are connecting to Exchange Server 2007 mailboxes after they swap URLs between Exchange Server 2010 and Exchange Server 2007This problem occurs because the device cannot correctly redirect a user whose mailbox was moved. The "451" redirect response to the device is not interpreted correctly.
Typically, you can resolve this issue by updating the device to the latest operating system. Verify the following:
Issue 2.5 - Users cannot synchronize Apple iPhone iOS 4.0 with the Exchange Server mailboxImmediately after you update to iOS 4.0, you might notice that Exchange ActiveSync Mail, Contacts, or Calendars do not sync or that they sync very slowly. Also, Exchange Server administrators might notice that servers are running slowly. This problem is also discussed in Issue 2.2 in this section.
Update the device to a later iOS version. For more information about this issue, go to the following Apple website:
iOS 4.0: Exchange Mail, Contacts, or Calendars may not sync after update
Issue 2.4 - You receive a "synchronization failed" email message when you synchronize your mobile deviceWhen you synchronize your mobile device by using Microsoft ActiveSync on an Exchange Server 2010 mailbox, you receive a synchronization failed email message that resembles the following:
From: Microsoft Exchange on Behalf of <user>
Subject: Synchronization with your <ActiveSync device> failed for 1 items.
Synchronization with your <ActiveSync device> failed for 1 items.
Microsoft Exchange was unable to send the following items to your mobile device. These items have not been deleted. You should be able to access them using either Outlook or Outlook Web Access.
Item Folder: Inbox
Item Type: IPM.Schedule.Meeting.Resp.Pos
This issue is described in the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2457304)You receive a synchronization failed email message when you synchronize your mobile device by using ActiveSync on an Exchange Server 2010 mailbox
To resolve this issue, install the following update rollup:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2529939)Description of Update Rollup 3 for Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 1
Issue 2.3 - "This message has not been downloaded from the server" error when you try to open a messageYou synchronize an Exchange Server mailbox with your iOS device. When you try to open a message on the iOS device, you receive the following error:
This message has not been downloaded from the server
You must configure the Accepted Domain by using Exchange Management Shell. Follow the steps in item 7 in the following post from the Exchange Team Blog:
Exchange 2010 SP1 FAQ and Known Issues
This issue is being reviewed by the Microsoft Exchange product team.
Issue 2.2 - Users cannot connect by using Exchange ActiveSync because of Exchange resource consumptionYou may experience resource exhaustion issues that are caused by devices that connect by using Exchange ActiveSync.
Administrators should review the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base to determine whether the users are experiencing the same server symptoms:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2469722)Unable to connect using Exchange ActiveSync due to Exchange resource consumption
Note This article also describes a known issue that occurs after you update to iOS 4.0. For more information, go to the iOS 4.0: Exchange Mail, Contacts, or Calendars may not sync after update
(http://support.apple.com/en-us/TS3398)website. We also discuss this issue in Issue 2.5 later in this section.
Exchange 2007 administrators should review the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base to determine whether they are experiencing the same server symptoms:
(http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2656040/en-us)An Exchange Server 2007 Client Access server responds slowly or stops responding when users try to synchronize Exchange ActiveSync devices with their mailboxes
IT administrators should also review Issue 1.8 in the previous section.
Another possible avenue to investigate is whether the device is continuously re-synchronizing. Apple has documented the behavior in the following article:
Issue 2.1 - Failures to provision and synchronize with Android OSExchange ActiveSync policies can cause provisioning and synchronization to fail when devices are customized. Devices are not provisioned if a policy that exceeds these limitations is applied to the users of these devices. This issue is discussed in comment 9 from the following post on the Google Android forum:
Updates to the Android OS version seem to resolve this problem. We encourage device users to update to the latest version that is available from their provider and to follow vendor forums that discuss synchronization issues. If the decision is made to use older devices in the organization, administrators can canvass device users or use tools such as Log Parser or Export-ActiveSyncLog to make sure that such devices are identified in the organization. Users of older devices can be grouped into a policy that can work for them.
The following links provide more information about Exchange ActiveSync experiences.
ActiveSync and our partners
http://blogs.technet.com/b/exchange/archive/2005/10/25/413056.aspxWhy all Exchange ActiveSync experiences aren’t the same, and how to know what you’re receiving
http://blogs.technet.com/b/exchange/archive/2010/07/15/3410397.aspxExchange ActiveSync logo program
Android OS devices are typically supported through forums or through the mobile carrier. Device vendor or mobile carrier websites may offer help.Apple Enterprise Support for Exchange ActiveSync and iOS
Apple Enterprise support is available through an Enterprise Support Agreement
(http://www.apple.com/support/products/enterprise/ossupport.html)or through a Cross Platform and Command Line Interface PPI (pay per incident)
Microsoft provides third-party contact information to help you find technical support. This contact information may change without notice. Microsoft does not guarantee the accuracy of this third-party contact information.
The third-party products that this article discusses are manufactured by companies that are independent of Microsoft. Microsoft makes no warranty, implied or otherwise, about the performance or reliability of these products.
Код статьи: 2563324 - Последний отзыв: 23 апреля 2015 г. - Revision: 51.1