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3-D reference

A reference to a range that spans two or more worksheets in a workbook.

3-D walls and floor

The areas surrounding many 3-D chart types that give dimension and boundaries to the chart. Two walls and one floor are displayed within the plot area.


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To make a chart sheet or worksheet the active, or selected, sheet. The sheet that you activate determines which tabs are displayed. To activate a sheet, click the tab for the sheet in the workbook.

Active cell

The selected cell in which data is entered when you begin typing. Only one cell is active at a time. The active cell is bounded by a heavy border.

Active sheet

The sheet that you're working on in a workbook. The name on the tab of the active sheet is bold.


The path to an object, document, file, page, or other destination. An address can be a URL (Web address) or a UNC path (network address), and can include a specific location within a file, such as a Word bookmark or an Excel cell range.

Alternate startup folder

A folder in addition to the XLStart folder that contains workbooks or other files that you want to be opened automatically when you start Excel and templates that you want to be available when you create new workbooks.


The values that a function uses to perform operations or calculations. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function. Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers, text, cell references, and names.


Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. An array range shares a common formula; an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.

Array formula

A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

Associated PivotTable

The PivotTable that supplies the source data to the PivotChart. It is created automatically when you create a new PivotChart. When you change the layout of either report, the other also changes.


A built-in collection of cell formats (such as font size, patterns, and alignment) that you can apply to a range of data. Excel determines the levels of summary and detail in the selected range and applies the formats accordingly.


A line bordering the chart plot area used as a frame of reference for measurement. The y axis is usually the vertical axis and contains data. The x-axis is usually the horizontal axis and contains categories.


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Base address

The relative path that Excel uses for the destination address when you insert a hyperlink. This can be an Internet address (URL), a path to a folder on your hard drive, or a path to a folder on a network.


A decorative line that can be applied to worksheet cells or objects, such as charts, pictures, or text boxes. Borders distinguish, emphasize, or group items.


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Calculated column

In an Excel table, a calculated column uses a single formula that adjusts for each row. It automatically expands to include additional rows so that the formula is immediately extended to those rows.

Calculated field (database)

A field in the result set of a query that displays the result of an expression rather than data from a database.

Calculated field (PivotTable)

A field in a PivotTable or PivotChart that uses a formula you create. Calculated fields can perform calculations by using the contents of other fields in the PivotTable or PivotChart.

Calculated item

An item within a PivotTable field or PivotChart field that uses a formula you create. Calculated items can perform calculations by using the contents of other items within the same field of the PivotTable or PivotChart.

Category axis

A chart axis that represents the category for each data point. It displays arbitrary text values like Qtr1, Qtr2, and Qtr3; it cannot display scaled numerical values.

Category field

A field that's displayed in the category area of the PivotChart. Items in a category field appear as the labels on the category axis.


A box formed by the intersection of a row and column in a worksheet or a table, in which you enter information.

Cell reference

The set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. For example, the reference of the cell that appears at the intersection of column B and row 3 is B3.

Certifying authority

A commercial organization, or a group within a company, that uses tools such as Microsoft Certificate Server to provide digital certificates that software developers can use to sign macros and users can use to sign documents.

Change history

In a shared workbook, information that is maintained about changes made in past editing sessions. The information includes the name of the person who made each change, when the change was made, and what data was changed.

Chart area

The entire chart and all its elements.

Chart sheet

A sheet in a workbook that contains only a chart. A chart sheet is beneficial when you want to view a chart or a PivotChart separately from worksheet data or a PivotTable.

Column field

A field that's assigned a column orientation in a PivotTable. Items associated with a column field are displayed as column labels.

Column heading

The shaded area at the top of each Data pane column that contains the field name.

Column heading

The lettered or numbered gray area at the top of each column. Click the column heading to select an entire column. To increase or decrease the width of a column, drag the line to the right of the column heading.

Comparison criteria

A set of search conditions that is used to find data. Comparison criteria can be a series of characters that you want to match, such as "Northwind Traders," or an expression, such as ">300."

Comparison operator

A sign that is used in comparison criteria to compare two values. The six standards are = Equal to, > Greater than, < Less than, >= Greater than or equal to, <= Less than or equal to, and <> Not equal to.

Conditional format

A format, such as cell shading or font color, that Excel automatically applies to cells if a specified condition is true.

Consolidation table

The table of combined results that appears in the destination area. Excel creates the consolidation table by applying the summary function that you select to the source area values that you specify.


A value that is not calculated. For example, the number 210 and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are constants. An expression, or a value resulting from an expression, is not a constant.


The limitations placed on a Solver problem. You can apply constraints to adjustable cells, the target cell, or other cells that are directly or indirectly related to the target cell.

Copy area

The cells that you copy when you want to paste data into another location. After you copy cells, a moving border appears around them to indicate that they've been copied.


Conditions you specify to limit which records are included in the result set of a query. For example, the following criterion selects records for which the value for the Order Amount field is greater than 30,000: Order Amount > 30000.

Criteria pane

The area of the window that displays the criteria used to limit the records included in the result set of your query.

Current region

The block of filled-in cells that includes the currently selected cell or cells. The region extends in all directions to the first empty row or column.

Custom calculation

A method of summarizing values in the data area of a PivotTable by using the values in other cells in the data area. Use the Show data as list on the PivotTable Field dialog for a data field to create custom calculations.


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Data form

A dialog box that displays one complete record at a time. You can use data forms to add, change, locate, and delete records.

Data label

A label that provides additional information about a data marker, which represents a single data point or value that originates from a datasheet cell.

Data marker

A bar, area, dot, slice, or other symbol in a chart that represents a single data point or value that originates from a datasheet cell. Related data markers in a chart constitute a data series.

Data pane

The area of the window that displays the result set of your query.

Data points

Individual values that are plotted in a chart. Related data points make up a data series. Data points are represented by bars, columns, lines, slices, dots, and other shapes. These shapes are called data markers.

Data region

A range of cells that contains data and that is bounded by empty cells or datasheet borders.

Data series

Related data points that are plotted in a chart and originate from datasheet rows or columns. Each data series in a chart has a unique color or pattern. You can plot one or more data series in a chart. Pie charts have only one data series.

Data source

A stored set of "source" information used to connect to a database. A data source can include the name and location of the database server, the name of the database driver, and information that the database needs when you log on.

Data source driver

A program file used to connect to a specific database. Each database program or management system requires a different driver.

Data table

A range of cells that shows the results of substituting different values in one or more formulas. There are two types of data tables: one-input tables and two-input tables.

Data table in charts

A grid that can be added to some charts and contains the numeric data used to create the chart. The data table usually is attached to the horizontal axis of the chart and replaces the tick-mark labels on the horizontal axis.

Data validation

An Excel feature that you can use to define restrictions on what data can or should be entered in a cell, and to display messages that prompt users for correct entries and notify users about incorrect entries.


A collection of data related to a particular subject or purpose. Within a database, information about a particular entity, such as an employee or order, is categorized into tables, records, and fields.

DDE conversation

The interaction between two applications that are communicating and exchanging data through special functions and code known as dynamic data exchange (DDE).

Default startup workbook

The new, unsaved workbook that's displayed when you start Excel. The default startup workbook is displayed only if you haven't included other workbooks in the XLStart folder.

Default workbook template

The Book.xlt template that you create to change the default format of new workbooks. Excel uses the template to create a blank workbook when you start Excel or create a new workbook without specifying a template.

Default worksheet template

The Sheet.xlt template that you create to change the default format of new worksheets. Excel uses the template to create a blank worksheet when you add a new worksheet to a workbook.


Cells that contain formulas that refer to other cells. For example, if cell D10 contains the formula =B5, cell D10 is a dependent of cell B5.

Destination area

The range of cells that you select to hold the summarized data in a consolidation. The destination area can be on the same worksheet as the source data or on a different worksheet. A worksheet can contain only one consolidation.

Detail data

For automatic subtotals and worksheet outlines, the subtotal rows or columns that are totaled by summary data. Detail data is typically adjacent to and either above or to the left of the summary data.

Drop lines

In line and area charts, lines that extend from a data point to the category (x) axis. Useful in area charts to clarify where one data marker ends and the next begins.

Drop-down list box

A control on a menu, toolbar, or dialog box that displays a list of options when you click the small arrow next to the list box.


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Embedded chart

A chart that is placed on a worksheet rather than on a separate chart sheet. Embedded charts are beneficial when you want to view or print a chart or a PivotChart with its source data or other information in a worksheet.

Error bars

Usually used in statistical or scientific data, error bars show potential error or degree of uncertainty relative to each data marker in a series.

Excel add-in

Components that can be installed on your computer to add commands and functions to Excel. These add-in programs are specific to Excel. Other add-in programs that are available for Excel or Office are Component Object Model (COM) add-ins.

Excel table

Formerly known as an Excel list, you can create, format, and expand an Excel table to organize the data on your worksheet.


A combination of operators, field names, functions, literals, and constants that evaluates to a single value. Expressions can specify criteria (such as Order Amount>10000) or perform calculations on field values (such as Price*Quantity).

External data

Data that is stored outside of Excel. Examples include databases created in Access, dBASE, SQL Server, or on a Web server.

External data range

A range of data that is brought into a worksheet but that originates outside of Excel, such as in a database or text file. In Excel, you can format the data or use it in calculations as you would any other data.

External reference

A reference to a cell or range on a sheet in another Excel workbook, or a reference to a defined name in another workbook.


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Field (database)

A category of information, such as last name or order amount, that is stored in a table. When Query displays a result set in its Data pane, a field is represented as a column.

Field (PivotTable)

In a PivotTable or PivotChart, a category of data that's derived from a field in the source data. PivotTables have row, column, page, and data fields. PivotCharts have series, category, page, and data fields.

Fill handle

The small black square in the lower-right corner of the selection. When you point to the fill handle, the pointer changes to a black cross.


To display only the rows in a list that satisfy the conditions you specify. You use the AutoFilter command to display rows that match one or more specific values, calculated values, or conditions.


A graphic design applied to all numerals, symbols, and alphabetic characters. Also called type or typeface. Arial and Courier New are examples of fonts. Fonts usually come in different sizes, such as 10 point, and various styles, such as bold.


A sequence of values, cell references, names, functions, or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).

Formula bar

A bar at the top of the Excel window that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. Displays the constant value or formula stored in the active cell.

Formula Palette

A tool that helps you create or edit a formula and also provides information about functions and their arguments.

Function (Microsoft Query)

An expression that returns a value based on the results of a calculation. Query assumes that data sources support the Avg, Count, Max, Min, and Sum functions. Some data sources may not support all of these, or may support additional functions.

Function (Office Excel)

A prewritten formula that takes a value or values, performs an operation, and returns a value or values. Use functions to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet, especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations.


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Goal seek

A method to find a specific value for a cell by adjusting the value of one other cell. When goal seeking, Excel varies the value in a cell that you specify until a formula that's dependent on that cell returns the result you want.


A set of intersecting lines used to align objects.

Gridlines in charts

Lines you can add to a chart that make it easier to view and evaluate data. Gridlines extend from the tick marks on an axis across the plot area.


In an outline or PivotTable, one or more detail rows or columns that are adjacent and subordinate to a summary row or column.


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High-low lines

In 2-D line charts, lines that extend from the highest to the lowest value in each category. High-low lines are often used in stock charts.

History worksheet

A separate worksheet that lists changes being tracked in a shared workbook, including the name of the person who made the change, when and where it was made, what data was deleted or replaced, and how conflicts were resolved.


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A field name used in an expression. For example, Order Amount is the identifier (field name) for a field that contains order amounts. You can use an expression (such as Price*Quantity) in place of an identifier.

Implicit intersection

A reference to a range of cells, instead of a single cell, that is calculated like a single cell. If cell C10 contains the formula =B5:B15*5, Excel multiplies the value in cell B10 by 5 because cells B10 and C10 are in the same row.


A database component that speeds up searching for data. When a table has an index, data in the table can be found by looking it up in the index.

Inner join

In Query, default type of join between two tables where only the records that have the same values in the joined fields are selected. The two matching records from each table are combined and displayed as one record in the result set.

Input cell

The cell in which each input value from a data table is substituted. Any cell on a worksheet can be the input cell. Although the input cell does not need to be part of the data table, the formulas in data tables must refer to the input cell.

Insert row

In an Excel table, a special row that facilitates data entry. The Insert row is indicated by an asterisk.

Internet Explorer

A Web browser that interprets HTML files, formats them into Web pages, and displays them to the user. You can download Internet Explorer from the Microsoft Web site at


A subcategory of a field in PivotTables and PivotCharts. For instance, the field "Month" could have items such as "January," "February," and so on.


Repeated calculation of a worksheet until a specific numeric condition is met.


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A connection between multiple tables where records from related fields that match are combined and shown as one record. Records that don't match may be included or excluded, depending on the type of join.

Join line

In Query, a line that connects fields between two tables and shows Query how the data is related. The type of join indicates which records are selected for the query's result set.


To adjust horizontal spacing so that text is aligned evenly along both the left and right margins. Justifying text creates a smooth edge on both sides.


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A box that identifies the patterns or colors that are assigned to the data series or categories in a chart.

Legend keys

Symbols in legends that show the patterns and colors assigned to the data series (or categories) in a chart. Legend keys appear to the left of legend entries. Formatting a legend key also formats the data marker that's associated with it.

Locked field or record

The condition of a record, field, or other object in a database that permits it to be viewed but not changed (read-only) in Query.


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Mapped range

A range in an XML list that has been linked to an element in an XML map.


A rectangular array of values or a range of cells that is combined with other arrays or ranges to produce multiple sums or products. Excel has predefined matrix functions that can produce the sums or products.

Merged cell

A single cell that is created by combining two or more selected cells. The cell reference for a merged cell is the upper-left cell in the original selected range.

Microsoft Excel control

A native Excel control other than an ActiveX control.

Microsoft Visual Basic Help

To get help for Visual Basic in Excel, on the Developer tab, in the Code group, click Visual Basic, and then under the Help menu, click Microsoft Visual Basic Help.

Moving average

A sequence of averages computed from parts of a data series. In a chart, a moving average smooths the fluctuations in data, thus showing the pattern or trend more clearly.

Moving border

An animated border that appears around a worksheet range that has been cut or copied. To cancel a moving border, press ESC.

Multiple-level category labels

Category labels in a chart that, based on worksheet data, are automatically displayed on more than one line in a hierarchy. For example, the heading Produce might appear above a row with headings Tofu, Apples, and Pears.


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A word or string of characters that represents a cell, range of cells, formula, or constant value. Use easy-to-understand names, such as Products, to refer to hard to understand ranges, such as Sales!C20:C30.

Name box

Box at left end of the formula bar that identifies the selected cell, chart item, or drawing object. To name a cell or range, type the name in the Name box and press ENTER. To move to and select a named cell, click its name in the Name box.

Nonadjacent selection

A selection of two or more cells or ranges that don't touch each other. When plotting nonadjacent selections in a chart, make sure that the combined selections form a rectangular shape.

Non-OLAP source data

Underlying data for a PivotTable or PivotChart that comes from a source other than an OLAP database. These sources include relational databases, tables on Excel worksheets, and text file databases.


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An OLE data format that describes a linked object, identifying the class, document name, and name of an object. Each of these data items is a null-terminated string.

Offline cube file

A file you create on your hard disk or a network share to store OLAP source data for a PivotTable or PivotChart. Offline cube files allow you to keep working when you are not connected to the OLAP server.


A database technology that has been optimized for querying and reporting, instead of processing transactions. OLAP data is organized hierarchically and stored in cubes instead of tables.

OLAP provider

A set of software that provides access to a particular type of OLAP database. This software can include a data source driver and other client software that is necessary to connect to a database.


Items on either side of an operator in a formula. In Excel, operands can be values, cell references, names, labels, and functions.


A sign or symbol that specifies the type of calculation to perform within an expression. There are mathematical, comparison, logical, and reference operators.

Outer join

Join in which all records from one table are selected, even if there are no matching records in another table. Records that match are combined and shown as one. Records that don't have matches in the other table are shown as empty.


Worksheet data in which rows or columns of detail data are grouped so that you can create summary reports. The outline can summarize either an entire worksheet or a selected portion of it.

Outline data

The data that is contained within a worksheet outline. Outline data includes both the summary and detail rows or columns of an outline.

Outline symbols

Symbols that you use to change the view of an outlined worksheet. You can show or hide detailed data by pressing the plus sign, minus sign, and the numbers 1, 2, 3, or 4, indicating the outline level.


An OLE data format that describes an embedded object, identifying the class, document name, and name of an object. Each of these data items is a null-terminated string.


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Page break

Divider that breaks a worksheet into separate pages for printing. Excel inserts automatic page breaks based on the paper size, margin settings, scaling options, and the positions of any manual page breaks that you insert.

Page break preview

Worksheet view that displays the areas to be printed and the locations of page breaks. The area to be printed is displayed in white, automatic page breaks appear as dashed lines, and manual page breaks appear as solid lines.


In Excel, you can add, change, or remove parameters to specify cells that are editable in the viewable worksheet data of Excel Services. When you save the workbook, the changes are automatically reflected on the server.

Parameter query

A type of query that, when you run it, prompts for values (criteria) to use to select the records for the result set so that the same query can be used to retrieve different result sets.


A way to protect your worksheet or workbook. When you protect worksheet or workbook elements with a password, it is very important that you remember that password. Without it, there is no way to unprotect the workbook or worksheet. You should always use strong passwords that combine uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Weak passwords don't mix these elements. Strong password: Y6dh!et5. Weak password: House27. Use a strong password that you can remember so that you don't have to write it down.

Paste area

The target destination for data that's been cut or copied by using the Office Clipboard.

Pivot area

The worksheet area into which you drag PivotTable or PivotChart fields to change the layout of the report. On a new report, dashed blue outlines indicate the pivot area on the worksheet.

PivotChart category field

A field that is assigned a category orientation in a PivotChart. In a chart, categories usually appear on the x-axis, or horizontal axis, of the chart.


A chart that provides interactive analysis of data, like a PivotTable. You can change views of data, see different levels of detail, or reorganize the chart layout by dragging fields and by showing or hiding items in fields.

PivotChart series field

A field that is assigned a series orientation in a PivotChart. In a chart, series are represented in the legend.

PivotTable data

In a PivotTable, the summarized data that's calculated from the data fields of a source list or table.

PivotTable grand totals

Total values for all cells in a row or all cells in a column of a PivotTable. Values in a grand total row or column are calculated by using the same summary function used in the data area of the PivotTable.

PivotTable list

A Microsoft Office Web Component that allows you to create a structure similar to an Excel PivotTable. Users can view the PivotTable list in a Web browser and change its layout in a manner similar to an Excel PivotTable.


An interactive, cross-tabulated Excel report that summarizes and analyzes data, such as database records, from various sources including ones external to Excel.

PivotTable subtotal

A row or column that uses a summary function to display the total of detail items in a PivotTable field.

Plot area

In a 2-D chart, the area bounded by the axes, including all data series. In a 3-D chart, the area bounded by the axes, including the data series, category names, tick-mark labels, and axis titles.


A unit of measurement equal to 1/72 of an inch.


Cells that are referred to by a formula in another cell. For example, if cell D10 contains the formula =B5, cell B5 is a precedent to cell D10.

Primary key

One or more fields that uniquely identify each record in a table. In the same way that a license plate number identifies a car, the primary key uniquely identifies a record.

Print area

One or more ranges of cells that you designate to print when you don't want to print the entire worksheet. If a worksheet includes a print area, only the print area is printed.

Print titles

Row or column labels that are printed at the top of or on the left side of every page on a printed worksheet.

Property fields

Independent attributes associated with items, or members, in an OLAP cube. For example, if city items have size and population properties stored in the server cube, a PivotTable can display the size and population of each city.


To make settings for a worksheet or workbook that prevent users from viewing or gaining access to the specified worksheet or workbook elements.


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In Query or Access, a means of finding the records that answer a particular question you ask about the data stored in a database.

Query channel

You use a query channel in a DDE conversation between the destination application and a specific query (for example, Query1) in Query. To use a query channel, you must have already opened the query window using a system channel.

Query design

All elements included in the Query window, such as tables, criteria, the order in which fields are arranged, and so on. The design also specifies whether Auto Query is turned on, and whether you can edit the source data.


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Two or more cells on a sheet. The cells in a range can be adjacent or nonadjacent.


A setting that allows a file to be read or copied but not changed or saved.


A collection of information about a particular person, place, event, or thing. When Query displays a result set in the Data pane, a record is represented as a row.

Refresh (external data range)

To update data from an external data source. Each time you refresh data, you see the most recent version of the information in the database, including any changes that were made to the data.

Refresh (PivotTable)

To update the contents of a PivotTable or PivotChart to reflect changes to the underlying source data. If the report is based on external data, refreshing runs the underlying query to retrieve new or changed data.

Regression analysis

A form of statistical analysis used for forecasting. Regression analysis estimates the relationship between variables so that a given variable can be predicted from one or more other variables.

Relative reference

In a formula, the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. If you copy the formula, the reference automatically adjusts. A relative reference takes the form A1.

Remote reference

A reference to data stored in a document from another program.

Report filter

A field that's used to filter a subset of data in a PivotTable or PivotChart into one page for further layout and analysis. You can either display a summary of all items in a report filter, or display one item at a time, which filters out the data for all other items.

Report template

An Excel template (.xlt file) that includes one or more queries or PivotTables that are based on external data. When you save a report template, Excel saves the query definition but doesn't store the queried data in the template.

Result set

The set of records returned when you run a query. You can see the result set of a query in Query, or you can return a result set to an Excel worksheet for further analysis.

Row heading

The numbered gray area to the left of each row. Click the row heading to select an entire row. To increase or decrease the height of a row, drag the line below the row heading.

Row label

A field that's assigned a row orientation in a PivotTable.

R-squared value

A number from 0 to 1 that reveals how closely the estimated values for the trendline correspond to your actual data. A trendline is most reliable when its R-squared value is at or near 1. Also known as the coefficient of determination.


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A named set of input values that you can substitute in a worksheet model.

Scroll lock

With scroll lock turned on, the arrow keys scroll the active sheet rather than make a different cell active. To turn scroll lock off or on, press the SCROLL LOCK key.


Any combination of a worksheet, view, and scenario that you choose when you create a report. A report can contain several sections.


To highlight a cell or range of cells on a worksheet. The selected cells will be affected by the next command or action.

Select All button

The gray rectangle in the upper-left corner of a datasheet where the row and column headings meet. Click this button to select all cells on a datasheet.

Series axis

A chart axis that represents the depth dimension in a true 3-D chart. It displays the series names as arbitrary text values; it cannot display scaled numerical values.

Series field

A field that's displayed in the series area of a PivotChart. Items in a series field are listed in the legend and provide the names of the individual data series.

Series lines

In 2-D stacked bar and column charts, lines that connect the data markers in each data series that are used to emphasize the difference in measurement between each series.

Shared workbook

A workbook set up to allow multiple users on a network to view and make changes at the same time. Each user who saves the workbook sees the changes made by other users.

Single-mapped cell

A cell that has been linked to a non-repeating element in an XML map.

Sort order

A way to arrange data based on value or data type. You can sort data alphabetically, numerically, or by date. Sort orders use an ascending (1 to 9, A to Z) or descending (9 to 1, Z to A) order.

Source areas

The cell ranges that you consolidate in the destination area you specify. Source areas can be on any worksheet in a workbook, in other open or closed workbooks, or on Lotus 1-2-3 worksheets.

Source data

The list or table that's used to create a PivotTable or PivotChart. Source data can be taken from an Excel table or range, an external database or cube, or another PivotTable.


A language used to retrieve, update, and manage data. When you create a query, Query uses SQL to build the corresponding SQL SELECT statement. If you know SQL, you can view or change the SQL SELECT statement.

Standard font

The default text font for worksheets. The standard font determines the default font for the Normal cell style.

Summary data

For automatic subtotals and worksheet outlines, all rows or columns that summarize detail data. Summary data usually is adjacent to and below the detail data.

Summary function

A type of calculation that combines source data in a PivotTable or a consolidation table, or when you are inserting automatic subtotals in a list or database. Examples of summary functions include Sum, Count, and Average.

System channel

Used in a DDE conversation between applications to get information about the system, such as the current connections, open queries, and the status of the destination application.


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Table pane

The area of the Query window that displays the tables in a query. Each table displays the fields from which you can retrieve data.


A workbook that you create and use as the basis for other similar workbooks. You can create templates for workbooks and worksheets. The default template for workbooks is called Book.xlt. The default template for worksheets is called Sheet.xlt.

Text box

A rectangular object on a worksheet or chart, in which you can type text.

Tick marks and tick-mark labels

Tick marks are small lines of measurement, similar to divisions on a ruler, that intersect an axis. Tick-mark labels identify the categories, values, or series in the chart.

Titles in charts

Descriptive text that is automatically aligned to an axis or centered at the top of a chart.

Total row

A special row in an Excel table that provides a selection of aggregate functions useful for working with numerical data.


One of the five calculation types Query defines for you: Sum, Avg, Count, Min, and Max.

Tracer arrows

Arrows that show the relationship between the active cell and its related cells. Tracer arrows are blue when pointing from a cell that provides data to another cell, and red if a cell contains an error value, such as #DIV/0!.


A graphic representation of trends in data series, such as a line sloping upward to represent increased sales over a period of months. Trendlines are used for the study of problems of prediction, also called regression analysis.

Trendline label

Optional text for a trendline, including either the regression equation or the R-squared value, or both. A trendline label can be formatted and moved; it cannot be sized.


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Up-down bars

In line charts with multiple data series, bars that indicate the difference between data points in the first and last series.


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The text, date, number, or logical input that completes a condition that a field must meet for searching or filtering. For example, the field Author with the condition <b>equals</b> must include a value, such as <b>John</b>, to be complete.

Value axis

A chart axis that displays scaled numerical values.

Value field

A field from a source list, table, or database that contains data that is summarized in a PivotTable or PivotChart. A value field usually contains numeric data, such as statistics or sales amounts.

Values area

The part of a PivotTable that contains summary data. Values in each cell of the values area represent a summary of data from the source records or rows.


Black, square, draggable points that appear at the ends and intersections of lines or curves in certain AutoShapes (such as freeforms, scribbles, and curves) when you edit points on the AutoShape.


A set of display and print settings that you can name and apply to a workbook. You can create more than one view of the same workbook without saving separate copies of the workbook.


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Web query

A query that retrieves data stored on your intranet or the Internet.

What-if analysis

A process of changing the values in cells to see how those changes affect the outcome of formulas on the worksheet. For example, varying the interest rate that is used in an amortization table to determine the amount of the payments.


A spreadsheet program file that you create in Excel. A workbook contains worksheets of rows and columns in which you can enter and calculate data.


The primary document that you use in Excel to store and work with data. Also called a spreadsheet. A worksheet consists of cells that are organized into columns and rows; a worksheet is always stored in a workbook.

Workspace file

A file that saves display information about open workbooks, so that you can later resume work with the same window sizes, print areas, screen magnification, and display settings. A workspace file doesn't contain the workbooks themselves.

World Wide Web

A system for navigating the Internet or through a collection of workbooks and other Office documents connected by hyperlinks and located on a network share, a company intranet or the Internet. When you use a Web browser, the Web appears as a collection of text, pictures, sounds, and digital movies.


In text, to break a line of text automatically on reaching a margin or object and continue the text on a new line.


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Extensible Markup Language (XML): A condensed form of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that enables developers to create customized tags that offer flexibility in organizing and presenting information.

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