In an Exchange Server 2013 environment, if the SMTP address of the health mailbox contains the Active Directory domain name of the mailbox, but the user principal name (UPN) of the Health Mailbox doesn't contain the Active Directory domain name, all CafeLocalProbe commands fail and return a "401 Unauthorized" error message.
This problem occurs because the domain name in the UPN of the health mailbox doesn't match the Active Directory Domain name.
To fix this problem, install Cumulative Update 12 for Exchange Server 2013.
To work around this problem, change the domain name in the UPN of the health mailbox to match the Active Directory domain name.
Microsoft has confirmed that this is a problem in the Microsoft products that are listed in the "Applies to" section.
Learn about the terminology that Microsoft uses to describe software updates.