If the search time for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory service is more than 800 milliseconds (ms), an ActiveDirectoryConnectivityProbe operation is unsuccessful. When this probe fails, this triggers ActiveDirectoryConnectivityRestart. This causes the server that's running Exchange Server 2013 to restart.
To fix this issue, install Cumulative Update 10 for Exchange Server 2013.
Microsoft has confirmed that this is a problem in the Microsoft products that are listed in the "Applies to" section.
Learn about the terminology that Microsoft uses to describe software updates.