Depending on the SQL Server component that is installed, you may not obtain all Microsoft SQL Server updates from Microsoft Update (MU) on a server that is running Microsoft SQL Server 2012 or Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and that has SQL Server Master Data Service (MDS) installed. This issue occurs in either of the following scenarios:
The SQL Server MDS component is installed in an instance of SQL Server 2012 or SQL Server 2012 SP1 that does not have a SQL Server engine component installed.
The SQL Server MDS component is added to an instance of SQL Server 2012 or SQL Server 2012 SP1 that has a SQL Server engine component installed, and the SQL Server engine already has the latest update that is offered by MU.
To work around this problem, manually download and then install the MDS-related SQL Server update from the Microsoft Download Center.
This problem has been fixed in Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Service Pack 2 (SP2).
Microsoft has confirmed that this is a problem in the Microsoft products that are listed in the "Applies to" section.