Assume that the Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 Redistributable is installed on a server. When you try to install an earlier version on the server, you receive the following error message:
Feature: Database Engine Services
Reason for failure: An error occurred for a dependency of the feature causing the setup process for the feature to fail.
Next Step: Use the following information to resolve the error, and then try the setup process again.
Component name: Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 Redistributable
Component error code: 1638
Component log file: FilePath\VCRuntime140_x64_Cpu64_1.log
Error description: VS Shell installation has failed with exit code 1638.
Error help link: https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink?LinkId=20476&ProdName=Microsoft+SQL+Server&EvtSrc=setup.rll&EvtID=50000&ProdVer=14.0.1000.169&EvtType=VCRuntime140_x64%40Install%400x1638
This issue is fixed in the following cumulative updates for SQL Server:
To fix the issue, use the following workarounds:
Repair the x64 version of Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 Redistributable from Add or remove programs by using following steps:
Open Add or remove programs.
Find and select Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 Redistributable (x64). Click the Change button.
Click the Repair button.
If you encounter this issue when installing TFS, you can start VC_redist.x64.exe from the TFS installation files, and then select repair.
Use the workarounds in the following documentations: