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Excel functions (by category)

# Excel functions (by category)

Worksheet functions are categorized by their functionality. Click a category to browse its functions. Or press Ctrl+F to find a function by typing the first few letters or a descriptive word. To get detailed information about a function, click its name in the first column.

## Our 10 most popular functions

Function

Description

Use this function to add the values in cells.

Use this function to return one value if a condition is true and another value if it's false. Here's a video about using the IF function.

Use this function when you need to look in a single row or column and find a value from the same position in a second row or column.

Use this function when you need to find things in a table or a range by row. For example, look up an employee's last name by her employee number, or find her phone number by looking up her last name (just like a telephone book). Check out this video about using VLOOKUP.

Use this function to search for an item in a range of cells, and then return the relative position of that item in the range. For example, if the range A1:A3 contains the values 5, 7, and 38, then the formula =MATCH(7,A1:A3,0) returns the number 2, because 7 is the second item in the range.

Use this function to select one of up to 254 values based on the index number. For example, if value1 through value7 are the days of the week, CHOOSE returns one of the days when a number between 1 and 7 is used as index_num.

Use this function to return the sequential serial number that represents a particular date. This function is most useful in situations where the year, month, and day are supplied by formulas or cell references. For example, you might have a worksheet that contains dates in a format that Excel does not recognize, such as YYYYMMDD.

Use the DATEDIF function to calculate the number of days, months, or years between two dates.

Use this function to return the number of days between two dates.

FIND and FINDB locate one text string within a second text string. They return the number of the starting position of the first text string from the first character of the second text string.

Use this function to return a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range.

## Compatibility functions

In Excel 2010 or later, these functions were replaced with new functions that provide improved accuracy and have names that better reflect their usage. You can still use them for compatibility with earlier versions of Excel, but if backward compatibility isn't required, you should start using the new functions instead. For more information about the new functions, see Statistical functions (reference) and Math and trigonometry functions (reference) .

If you're using Excel 2007, you'll find these functions in the Statistical or Math & Trig categories on the Formulas tab.

Function

Description

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability

Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution

Returns the test for independence

Joins two or more text strings into one string

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value

Returns the exponential distribution

Returns the F probability distribution

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution

Rounds a number down, toward zero

Calculates, or predicts, a future value by using existing values.

Returns the result of an F-test

Returns the gamma distribution

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution

Returns the hypergeometric distribution

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution

Returns the most common value in a data set

Returns the negative binomial distribution

Returns the normal cumulative distribution

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set

Returns the Poisson distribution

Returns the quartile of a data set

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population

Returns the Student's t-distribution

Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution

Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test

Estimates variance based on a sample

Calculates variance based on the entire population

Returns the Weibull distribution

Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test

## Cube functions

Function

Description

Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, that is used to monitor an organization's performance.

Returns a member or tuple from the cube. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube.

Returns the value of a member property from the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member.

Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or the top 10 students.

Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.

Returns the number of items in a set.

Returns an aggregated value from the cube.

## Database functions

Function

Description

Returns the average of selected database entries

Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database

Counts nonblank cells in a database

Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria

Returns the maximum value from selected database entries

Returns the minimum value from selected database entries

Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database

Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries

Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria

Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries

Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries

## Date and time functions

Function

Description

Returns the serial number of a particular date

Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age.

Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number

Converts a serial number to a day of the month

Returns the number of days between two dates

Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year

Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date

Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months

Converts a serial number to an hour

Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date

Converts a serial number to a minute

Converts a serial number to a month

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days

Returns the serial number of the current date and time

Converts a serial number to a second

Returns the serial number of a particular time

Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number

Returns the serial number of today's date

Converts a serial number to a day of the week

Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days

Converts a serial number to a year

Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date

## Engineering functions

Function

Description

Returns the modified Bessel function In(x)

Returns the Bessel function Jn(x)

Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x)

Returns the Bessel function Yn(x)

Converts a binary number to decimal

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal

Converts a binary number to octal

Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers

Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits

Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers

Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits

Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number

Converts a number from one measurement system to another

Converts a decimal number to binary

Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal

Converts a decimal number to octal

Tests whether two values are equal

Returns the error function

Returns the error function

Returns the complementary error function

Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity

Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value

Converts a hexadecimal number to binary

Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal

Converts a hexadecimal number to octal

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number

Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number

Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number

Returns the cosine of a complex number

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number

Returns the cotangent of a complex number

Returns the cosecant of a complex number

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number

Returns the quotient of two complex numbers

Returns the exponential of a complex number

Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number

Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number

Returns a complex number raised to an integer power

Returns the product of from 2 to 255 complex numbers

Returns the real coefficient of a complex number

Returns the secant of a complex number

Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number

Returns the sine of a complex number

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number

Returns the square root of a complex number

Returns the difference between two complex numbers

Returns the sum of complex numbers

Returns the tangent of a complex number

Converts an octal number to binary

Converts an octal number to decimal

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal

## Financial functions

Function

Description

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period

Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date

Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date

Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date

Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date

Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods

Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify

Returns the discount rate for a security

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction

Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments

Returns the effective annual interest rate

Returns the future value of an investment

Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates

Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security

Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows

Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment

Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100

Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates

Returns the annual nominal interest rate

Returns the number of periods for an investment

Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period

Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period

Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period

Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value

Returns the periodic payment for an annuity

Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security

Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity

Returns the present value of an investment

Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity

Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security

Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment

Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period

Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period

Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill

Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill

Returns the yield for a Treasury bill

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method

Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic

Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic

Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest

Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill

Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity

## Information functions

Function

Description

Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell

Returns a number corresponding to an error type

Returns information about the current operating environment

Note: This function is not available in Excel for the web.

Returns TRUE if the value is blank

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value

Returns TRUE if the number is even

Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula

Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value

Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value

Returns TRUE if the value is not text

Returns TRUE if the value is a number

Returns TRUE if the number is odd

Returns TRUE if the value is a reference

Returns TRUE if the value is text

Returns a value converted to a number

Returns the error value #N/A

Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet

Returns the number of sheets in a reference

Returns a number indicating the data type of a value

## Logical functions

Function

Description

Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE

Returns the logical value FALSE

Specifies a logical test to perform

Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula

Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression

Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.

Reverses the logic of its argument

Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE

Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned.

Returns the logical value TRUE

Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments

## Lookup and reference functions

Function

Description

Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet

Returns the number of areas in a reference

Chooses a value from a list of values

Returns the column number of a reference

Returns the number of columns in a reference

Filters a range of data based on criteria you define

Returns the formula at the given reference as text

Returns data stored in a PivotTable report

Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell

Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet

Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array

Returns a reference indicated by a text value

Looks up values in a vector or array

Looks up values in a reference or array

Returns a reference offset from a given reference

Returns the row number of a reference

Returns the number of rows in a reference

Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation

Sorts the contents of a range or array

Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array

Returns the transpose of an array

Returns a list of unique values in a list or range

Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell

Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. If a match doesn't exist, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match.

Returns the relative position of an item in an array or range of cells.

## Math and trigonometry functions

Function

Description

Returns the absolute value of a number

Returns the arccosine of a number

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number

Returns the arccotangent of a number

Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number

Returns an aggregate in a list or database

Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number

Returns the arcsine of a number

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number

Returns the arctangent of a number

Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number

Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)

Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects

Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items

Returns the cosine of a number

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number

Returns the cotangent of an angle

Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number

Returns the cosecant of an angle

Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle

Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number

Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer

Returns e raised to the power of a given number

Returns the factorial of a number

Returns the double factorial of a number

Rounds a number down, toward zero

Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded down.

Returns the greatest common divisor

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer

Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

Returns the least common multiple

Returns the natural logarithm of a number

Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number

Returns the matrix determinant of an array

Returns the matrix inverse of an array

Returns the matrix product of two arrays

Returns the remainder from division

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple

Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers

Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension

Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer

Returns the value of pi

Returns the result of a number raised to a power

Multiplies its arguments

Returns the integer portion of a division

Returns a random number between 0 and 1

Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values.

Returns a random number between the numbers you specify

Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits

Rounds a number down, toward zero

Rounds a number up, away from zero

Returns the secant of an angle

Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula

Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4

Returns the sign of a number

Returns the sine of the given angle

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number

Returns a positive square root

Returns the square root of (number * pi)

Returns a subtotal in a list or database

Adds the cells specified by a given criteria

Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria

Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays

Returns the tangent of a number

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number

Truncates a number to an integer

## Statistical functions

Function

Description

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean

Returns the average of its arguments

Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria

Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability

Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function

Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution

Returns the test for independence

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution

Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets

Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments

Counts how many values are in the list of arguments

Counts the number of blank cells within a range

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations

Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets

Returns the sum of squares of deviations

Returns the exponential distribution

Returns the F probability distribution

Returns the F probability distribution

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution

Returns the result of an F-test

Returns the Fisher transformation

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation

Returns a value along a linear trend

Note: In Excel 2016, this function is replaced with FORECAST.LINEAR as part of the new Forecasting functions, but it's still available for compatibility with earlier versions.

Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm

Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date

Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series

Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting

Returns a future value based on existing values

Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array

Returns the Gamma function value

Returns the gamma distribution

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x)

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x)

Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution

Returns the geometric mean

Returns values along an exponential trend

Returns the harmonic mean

Returns the hypergeometric distribution

Returns the intercept of the linear regression line

Returns the kurtosis of a data set

Returns the k-th largest value in a data set

Returns the parameters of a linear trend

Returns the parameters of an exponential trend

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria

Returns the median of the given numbers

Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria.

Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data

Returns the most common value in a data set

Returns the negative binomial distribution

Returns the normal cumulative distribution

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range

Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects

Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution

Returns the Poisson distribution

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits

Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive

Returns the quartile of a data set

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient

Returns the skewness of a distribution

Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean

Returns the slope of the linear regression line

Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set

Returns a normalized value

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values

Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution

Returns the Student's t-distribution

Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom

Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution

Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test

Returns values along a linear trend

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set

Calculates variance based on the entire population

Estimates variance based on a sample

Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values

Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values

Returns the Weibull distribution

Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test

## Text functions

Function

Description

Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters

Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format

Returns the character specified by the code number

Removes all nonprintable characters from text

Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string

Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments.

Joins several text items into one text item

Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters

Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format

Checks to see if two text values are identical

Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive)

Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals

Returns the leftmost characters from a text value

Returns the number of characters in a text string

Converts text to lowercase

Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify

Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner

Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string

Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value

Replaces characters within text

Repeats text a given number of times

Returns the rightmost characters from a text value

Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive)

Substitutes new text for old text in a text string

Converts its arguments to text

Formats a number and converts it to text

Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges.

Removes spaces from text

Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value

Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text

Converts text to uppercase

Converts a text argument to a number

## User defined functions that are installed with add-ins

If add-ins that you install contain functions, these add-in or automation functions will be available in the User Defined category in the Insert Function dialog box.

User-defined functions (UDFs) are not available in Excel for the web.

Function

Description

Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource

Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation)

Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered

## Web functions

Web functions are not available in Excel for the web.

Function

Description

Returns a URL-encoded string

Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath

Returns data from a web service

Version markers indicate the version of Excel a function was introduced. These functions aren't available in earlier versions.

Important: The calculated results of formulas and some Excel worksheet functions may differ slightly between a Windows PC using x86 or x86-64 architecture and a Windows RT PC using ARM architecture. Learn more about the differences.

## Need more help?

You can always ask an expert in the Excel Tech Community, get support in the Answers community, or suggest a new feature or improvement on Excel User Voice.